-standing sport-science literature. Thus, I intentionally review influential scholarship by founding fathers and mothers (and their offspring) on youth sport motivation over the past 40 years through the lens of three foci: • Paradigms: What describes the dominant research views and methods across the decades
Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin, and Beth Fisher
Background Modulation of Intracortical Connectivity Current non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), focus on changing behaviors through up or down regulation of a single cortical region
Mark S. Tremblay
the field of time-use epidemiology, an example of which is compositional analyses of 24-hour movement guidelines. Recent Guideline Developments Commensurate with the rapidly emerging evidence supporting the 24-hour guideline paradigm, several jurisdictions have developed public health guidelines
Barbara Resnick, Marcia G. Ory, Kerrie Hora, Michael E. Rogers, Phillip Page, Jane N. Bolin, Roseann M. Lyle, Cody Sipe, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, and Terry L. Bazzarre
The Exercise Assessment and Screening for You (EASY) is a tool developed to help older individuals, their health care providers, and exercise professionals identify different types of exercise and physical activity regimens that can be tailored to meet the existing health conditions, illnesses, or disabilities of older adults. The EASY tool includes 6 screening questions that were developed based on an expert roundtable and follow-up panel activities. The philosophy behind the EASY is that screening should be a dynamic process in which participants learn to appreciate the importance of engaging in regular exercise, attending to health changes, recognizing a full range of signs and symptoms that might indicate potentially harmful events, and becoming familiar with simple safety tips for initiating and progressively increasing physical activity patterns. Representing a paradigm shift from traditional screening approaches that focus on potential risks of exercising, this tool emphasizes the benefits of exercise and physical activity for all individuals.
Gonzalo Varas-Diaz, Savitha Subramaniam, Larissa Delgado, Shane A. Phillips, and Tanvi Bhatt
exergaming-based dance protocol independently without a fall. Conclusions Our results support the effectiveness of an exergaming-based dance training paradigm on improving HRV and cardiovascular fitness in older adults. Taken together, our results suggest that exergaming-based dance may be a potential
Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar
Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.
Marcos Daou, Taylor L. Buchanan, Kyle R. Lindsey, Keith R. Lohse, and Matthew W. Miller
There is some evidence that people learn academic (declarative) information better when studying with the expectation of having to teach, but this has not been demonstrated for perceptual-motor skills, which also rely on declarative information but more heavily on procedural knowledge. To address this possibility, participants studied golf-putting instructions and practiced putting with the expectation of having to teach another participant how to putt or the expectation of being tested on their putting. One day later, learning was assessed by testing all participants on their golf putting. Results revealed that expecting to teach enhanced learning, even after controlling for the amount of studying and practicing. Therefore, we have presented the first findings that expecting to teach enhances motor learning. Taking these findings together with similar studies focusing on declarative information, we suggest that expecting to teach yields a general learning benefit to different types of skills.
Scott A. Graupensperger, Alex J. Benson, and M. Blair Evans
may influence their perceptions of teammates’ behavior). To advance our understanding of the social processes that underlie athletes’ decisions to engage in risky behaviors, we used a manipulated peer-response paradigm (MPR-paradigm) to capture athletes’ susceptibility to peer influence. Theoretical
The dissatisfaction with the existing scientific paradigm of social psychology, and its adoption in sport psychology, is discussed. Although many metapsychological issues are raised, attention focuses on the inadequacies of laboratory experimental research. As a partial solution in the development of a new paradigm, it is suggested that sport psychologists trade their smocks for “jocks,” turning their efforts to multivariate, long-term field research.
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith, and Nazanin Derakshan
executive functions and efficiency in sports. Ducrocq, Wilson, Vine, and Derakshan ( 2016 ) employed a training paradigm specifically designed to target the inhibition function of WM with the aim of protecting tennis players from the negative impact of competitive anxiety via improved inhibition. Compared