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Dean R. Watson, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

excessively high personal standards, which are accompanied by overly critical evaluations of behavior ( Frost & Marten, 1990 ). Current understanding suggests that perfectionism is a multidimensional trait and includes two higher order dimensions: perfectionistic strivings (PS), reflecting personal standards

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Frazer Atkinson, Jeffrey J. Martin, and E. Whitney G. Moore

competence. Moreover, individuals who report being high in adaptive perfectionism (i.e., perfectionistic strivings) have high personal standards, set challenging goals, and are highly motivated, which has been linked to increased confidence. In contrast, athletes high in maladaptive perfectionism (i

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Luke F. Olsson, Michael C. Grugan, Joseph N. Martin, and Daniel J. Madigan

measures and associated perfectionism dimensions can be integrated into a higher order model of perfectionism (also known as the two-factor model; see Stoeber & Madigan, 2016 ). The higher order model consists of two broad dimensions of perfectionism labeled perfectionistic strivings (PS) and

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Thomas D. Raedeke, Victoria Blom, and Göran Kenttä

, 1990 ). Although perfectionism is multidimensional in nature, factor analytic studies have revealed two higher-order dimensions, including perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Perfectionistic concerns are reflected by doubts about action and concerns over mistakes, along with perceptions of high

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi

different proposed frameworks based on two higher-order dimensions of perfectionism—perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Although a point of some debate among researchers in recent years (e.g.,  Flett & Hewitt, 2005 ), perfectionistic strivings have often been considered adaptive and

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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill, and Howard K. Hall

factor analysis of multiple instruments designed to measure perfectionism and provides support for consideration of two broad dimensions of perfectionism (e.g.,  Cox, Enns, & Clara, 2002 ). These two dimensions are termed perfectionistic strivings (PS) and perfectionistic concerns (PC). PS captures self