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Linda Pannekoek, Jan P. Piek, and Martin S. Hagger

A mixed methods design was applied to evaluate the application of the Perceived Locus of Causality scale (PLOC) to preadolescent samples in physical education settings. Subsequent to minor item adaptations to accommodate the assessment of younger samples, qualitative pilot tests were performed (N = 15). Children’s reports indicated the need for further revisions to the items, resulting in the Children’s PLOC (C-PLOC). In a second study involving a larger sample of 9–12 year old children (N = 429), the questionnaire was evaluated using quantitative methods. The five factor structure hypothesized based on self-determination theory was confirmed. Discriminant validity and reliability of the subscales was largely supported, but require confirmation in future research. Age was not found to be significantly related to children’s motivational styles. Taken together, initial results provide support for the suitability of the C-PLOC for the assessment of motivation in 9–12 year old children in physical education.

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Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh, and Jim F. Sallis

physical fitness of pre-adolescent children during the academic year and the summer period: effects of organized physical activity . J Child Health Care . 2006 ; 10 ( 3 ): 199 – 212 . PubMed doi:10.1177/1367493506066481 16940343 10.1177/1367493506066481 21. Whitaker RC . Predicting preschooler obesity

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Bethany A. Moore, Makenzie L. Callahan, Samantha L. Martin, Alysha Everett, W. Timothy Garvey, and Paula Chandler-Laney

Obstet Gynaecol . 2018 ; 38 ( 3 ): 408 – 12 . PubMed ID: 29355062 doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1410536 32476999 14. Dezenberg CV , Nagy TR , Gower BA , Johnson R , Goran MI . Predicting body composition from anthropometry in pre-adolescent children . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord . 1999

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Michael J. Wierenga, Cheryl A. Howe, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

. Cunningham , C. , & Jones , M. ( 1996 ). Play through the eyes of children: Use of cameras to study after-school use of leisure time and leisure space by pre-adolescent children . Society and Leisure, 19 ( 2 ), 341 – 361 . Cunningham , C. , & Jones , M. ( 1998 ). Play through the lens: Children