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Daniel T. Bishop, Costas I. Karageorghis, and Georgios Loizou

The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate young tennis players’ use of music to manipulate emotional states, and (b) to present a model grounded in present data to illustrate this phenomenon and to stimulate further research. Anecdotal evidence suggests that music listening is used regularly by elite athletes as a preperformance strategy, but only limited empirical evidence corroborates such use. Young tennis players (N = 14) were selected purposively for interview and diary data collection. Results indicated that participants consciously selected music to elicit various emotional states; frequently reported consequences of music listening included improved mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. The choice of music tracks and the impact of music listening were mediated by a number of factors, including extramusical associations, inspirational lyrics, music properties, and desired emotional state. Implications for the future investigation of preperformance music are discussed.

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Rosemary A. Arthur, Nichola Callow, Ross Roberts, and Freya Glendinning

observing athletes’ use of PS. The coaches talked about watching athletes’ use of PS and noticing how effective it was. Coaches said they listened to how negative athletes were and watched for breaks in preperformance routines. Coaches also mentioned testing athletes’ use of PS by providing challenges and

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Aubrey Newland, Rich Gitelson, and W. Eric Legg

Connaughton et al. ( 2008 ) study indicated that the development of mental toughness required mental skills, such as self-talk, focus, preperformance routines, imagery, and goal setting. Because grit and mental toughness share the core notion of perseverance and resilience amid challenges, perhaps the

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Tyler Makepeace and Bradley W. Young

, [including] best and worst cases.” She tied MAs’ imagery to the “mitigation of worries” as well as to “breathing, relaxation, and active mindfulness,” and coached them to integrate it into warm-ups. Some MPCs worked on refining their preperformance routines, addressing cognitive reframing (changing from