Sport industry marketers have long understood the importance of nurturing customer relationships. The new challenge is how best to face the shifts in customer relationship marketing posed by sports organizations and proactive consumers, or “prosumers.” In this article, the elements of the relationship-building process are presented with a focus on communication, interaction, and value, concepts identified in Gronroos’s (2004) relationship-marketing process model. An expanded version of Gronroos’s model is developed to include prosumers and to describe the interactions that occur through social-media exchanges. The value of specific social-media tools and Web 2.0 technologies in helping sport marketers meet their relationship-marketing goals is also discussed. Finally, directions for future research employing the expanded model are suggested.
Meeting Relationship-Marketing Goals Through Social Media: A Conceptual Model for Sport Marketers
Jo Williams and Susan J. Chinn
How Soccer Becomes Politics: A Case Study on the Communication of a Transnational Popular Media Event
Jochem Kotthaus, Matthias Schäfer, Nikola Stankovic, and Gerrit Weitzel
In this case study, the authors elaborate on the narrative structure of transnational popular media events. Drawing from Dayan and Katz’s concept of media events and Julia Sonnevend’s exceptional work on iconic global media events, they argue that fundamental changes in the way occurrences are being reported on and news is structured must be considered. Allowing for recent technological advancements, the role of the consumer and the compression of time in media use, the authors develop a methodological and theoretical framework fitting a more mundane and everyday life–based approach. They derive their results from the analysis of the “Podgorica Media Event,” a news cycle emerging from a racist incident during an international soccer game between England and Montenegro. Based on the body of 250 international news pieces, they identify a primary mother narration and a distinctive narration as the typical ways of storytelling on a transnational level. While differing greatly in content, aspects of transnational popular media events serve to protect and reify the cultural background they are grounded in on a national level. Thus, we assume that sport, or, more specifically, soccer, may become political in media communication not by the impact of state government but by the consumers themselves choosing and developing a popular media event in the first place.
“Love Sport, Even When It Breaks Your Heart Again”: Ritualizing Consumerism in Sports on Weibo
Zhengjia Liu and Dan Berkowitz
Social media have changed the way that social actors participate in sports events. “Prosumers” are able to directly offer different interpretations without journalists’ mediation when a social issue arises. However, social media do not fundamentally change the significance of cultural narratives in communication. This study focuses on discussions initiated by a commercial feed on a Chinese microblogging site during the 2012 London Olympic Games. Qualitative textual analysis was conducted. The study found that enduring cultural narratives create the predrafts of social-media communication; the instantaneity of microblogging referred to not simply its physical appearance but also the meaning of that appearance. In addition, social-media texts illustrate a society’s ongoing stories. Going beyond the limitations of previous control-vs.-freedom paradigms, this study explores a Chinese consumer society that is more dynamic and complex than previous studies would suggest.
Athlete Perceptions of Social Media Benefits and Challenges During Major Sport Events
Michelle Hayes, Kevin Filo, Caroline Riot, and Andrea Geurin
consumer and producer tends to blur, which has led to the introduction of the terms prosumer and prosumption ( Quan-Haase & Young, 2010 ; Ritzer & Jurgenson, 2010 ). The terms prosumer and prosumption describe users’ ability to take more control over the distribution and production of content in
Place Your Bets: An Exploratory Study of Sports-Gambling Operators’ Use of Twitter for Relationship Marketing
Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine
fans have money on the line. Williams and Chinn ( 2010 ) even found many consumers in sport to be so proactive they named them “prosumers.” Prosumers very much want to be involved in the creation of products and services, and they need easy ways to connect with the organization. By doing so with
International Sport Federations’ Social Media Communication: A Content Analysis of FIFA’s Twitter Account
Mathieu Winand, Matthew Belot, Sebastian Merten, and Dimitrios Kolyperas
( Abeza et al., 2013 ). Williams and Chinn ( 2010 ) examined how sport organizations could reach their RM goals through social media and argued that the new challenge for sport organizations is how to handle the shift in the customer relationship, as consumers now are known as “prosumers” due to their
Brand-Image Communication Through Social Media: The Case of European Professional Football Clubs
Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas, and Christos Anagnostopoulos
different actors cocreate value in a network. Indeed, the inherent characteristics of Facebook and Twitter have expanded the amalgamation of consumers and producers into “prosumers” ( Tapscott, 2008 ), which has been also noted in the sport context by O’Shea and Alonso ( 2011 ). In this sense, the content
Do Consumer Perceptions of Tanking Impact Attendance at National Basketball Association Games? A Sentiment Analysis Approach
Hua Gong, Nicholas M. Watanabe, Brian P. Soebbing, Matthew T. Brown, and Mark S. Nagel
The emergence of social media has drastically changed the way fans consume sport products ( Billings, Broussard, Xu, & Xu, 2019 ) as it represents a dynamic digital environment that provides the potential for sport fans to become prosumers—individuals who both produce and consume—especially on social