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Variable Cadence Gait Training Outcomes Using Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Embedded in Older Adults’ Preferred Music

Cathy A. Larson, Edward A. Roth, Alycia J. Sterenberg Mahon, Michael Crinion, Kelsey Fischer, Sun Hye Yim, and Amy K. Smith

). While completing community errands, it was necessary for older adults with or without disabilities to walk, on average, 300 m (900–1,000 feet) in order to complete activities such as shopping or visiting a health care practitioner. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) ( Repp & Su, 2013 ; Thaut et

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Stride Rate and Walking Intensity in Healthy Older Adults

Leslie Peacock, Allan Hewitt, David A. Rowe, and Rona Sutherland


The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults.


Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials.


Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p < .01) on walking intensity.


Healthy older adults achieve MVPA with stride rates that fall below published minima for MVPA. Stride rate, age, and height are significant predictors of energy expenditure in this population. Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.

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Rhythm and Reaching: The Influence of Rhythmic Auditory Cueing in a Goal-Directed Reaching Task With Adults Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy

Jacqueline C. Ladwig, Tamires C. do Prado, Stephanie J. Tomy, Jonathan J. Marotta, and Cheryl M. Glazebrook

Improvements in functional reaching directly support improvements in independence. The addition of auditory inputs (e.g., music, rhythmic counting) may improve goal-directed reaching for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). To effectively integrate auditory stimuli into adapted teaching and rehabilitation protocols, it is necessary to understand how auditory stimuli may enhance limb control. This study considered the influence of auditory stimuli during the planning or execution phases of goal-directed reaches. Adults (with CP = 10, without CP = 10) reached from a home switch to two targets. Three conditions were presented—no sound, sound before, and sound during—and three-dimensional movement trajectories were recorded. Reaction times were shorter for both groups in the sound before condition, while the group with CP also reached peak velocity relatively earlier in the sound before condition. The group with CP executed more consistent movements in both sound conditions. Sound presented before movement initiation improved both the planning and execution of reaching movements for adults with CP.

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Stepping to an Auditory Metronome Improves Weight-Bearing Symmetry in Poststroke Hemiparesis

Rachel L. Wright, Joseph W. Bevins, David Pratt, Catherine M. Sackley, and Alan M. Wing

: benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking . Phys Ther . 2007 ; 87 ( 8 ): 1009 – 1022 . PubMed ID: 17553922 doi:10.2522/ptj.20050394 10.2522/ptj.20050394 17553922 23. Thaut MH , Leins AK , Rice RR , et al . Rhythmic auditory stimulation improves gait more than NDT/Bobath training in near

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Effects of Motor Learning Interventions on Walking Performance and Physical Function in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicolas Farina, and Shahab Parvonpour

, which was implemented under three conditions: rhythmic auditory stimulation in which metronomic beats were imbedded in music, rhythmic auditory stimulation that consisted of metronomic beats without music, and no auditory stimulus. The participants completed nine sessions (two sessions per week). Gait

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Using Music-Based Cadence Entrainment to Manipulate Walking Intensity

Dylan C. Perry, Christopher C. Moore, Colleen J. Sands, Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Scott W. Ducharme

21–40 year olds: CADENCE-adults . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2019 ; 16 ( 1 ): 8 . PubMed ID: 30654810 doi:10.1186/s12966-019-0769-6 10.1186/s12966-019-0769-6 30654810 6. Thaut MH , McIntosh GC , Rice RR , Miller RA , Rathbun J , Brault JM . Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait

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Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease Retain Spatiotemporal Gait Control With Music and Metronome Cues

Guneet Chawla, Madelon Hoppe, Nina Browner, and Michael D. Lewek

–2 ), 63 – 69 . PubMed ID: 15050439 doi:10.1016/j.jns.2003.12.007 10.1016/j.jns.2003.12.007 Thaut , M.H. , McIntosh , G.C. , Rice , R.R. , Miller , R.A. , Rathbun , J. , & Brault , J.M. ( 1996 ). Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson’s disease patients . Movement

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North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity