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Variable Cadence Gait Training Outcomes Using Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Embedded in Older Adults’ Preferred Music

Cathy A. Larson, Edward A. Roth, Alycia J. Sterenberg Mahon, Michael Crinion, Kelsey Fischer, Sun Hye Yim, and Amy K. Smith

). While completing community errands, it was necessary for older adults with or without disabilities to walk, on average, 300 m (900–1,000 feet) in order to complete activities such as shopping or visiting a health care practitioner. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) ( Repp & Su, 2013 ; Thaut et

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Stride Rate and Walking Intensity in Healthy Older Adults

Leslie Peacock, Allan Hewitt, David A. Rowe, and Rona Sutherland


The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults.


Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials.


Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p < .01) on walking intensity.


Healthy older adults achieve MVPA with stride rates that fall below published minima for MVPA. Stride rate, age, and height are significant predictors of energy expenditure in this population. Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.

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Effects of Motor Learning Interventions on Walking Performance and Physical Function in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicolas Farina, and Shahab Parvonpour

, which was implemented under three conditions: rhythmic auditory stimulation in which metronomic beats were imbedded in music, rhythmic auditory stimulation that consisted of metronomic beats without music, and no auditory stimulus. The participants completed nine sessions (two sessions per week). Gait