. Based on preliminary empirical findings, Galanis et al. ( 2016 ) elaborated on the motivational and cognitive mechanism, and attempted to forward postulations regarding the attentional functions of self-talk. They argued that even though research on self-talk mechanisms is still in early stages, there
Evangelos Galanis, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Comoutos, Fedra Charachousi, and Xavier Sanchez
Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen, and Samuele Marcora
This study examined the effects of strategic, motivational self-talk for runners completing a 60-mile, overnight ultramarathon using a randomized, controlled experiment. Data were collected before, during, and after an annual ultramarathon. Twenty-nine ultramarathon runners were randomly allocated to a motivational self-talk group or an alternative control group. A condition-by-time mixed ANOVA indicated that learning to use motivational self-talk did not affect preevent self-efficacy or perceived control. A t-test and magnitude-based inference indicated that motivational self-talk did not affect performance. Nevertheless, follow-up data suggested that most participants found the intervention helpful and continued to use it six months after their research commitment, particularly in endurance events and to a lesser extent in training. Participants continued to use self-talk to cope with exertion, as well as other stressors such as blister discomfort and adverse conditions. Suggestions are offered for future research examining the effects of psychological interventions on performance in endurance events.
Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin, and Britton W. Brewer
.2005.9671758 10.1080/1612197X.2005.9671758 Galanis , V. , Hatzigeorgiadis , A. , Zourbanos , N. , & Theodorakis , Y. ( 2016 ). Why self-talk is effective? Perspectives on self-talk mechanisms in sport . In M. Raab , P. Wylleman , R. Seiler , A.-M. Elbe , & A. Hatzigeorgiadis
James Hardy, Nikos Comoutos, and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
. ( 2016 ). Why self-talk is effective? Perspectives on self-talk mechanisms in sport . In M. Raab , P. Wylleman , R. Seiler , A-M. Elbe , & A. Hatzigeorgiadis (Eds.), Sport and exercise psychology research: From theory to practice (pp. 181 – 200 ). London, UK : Elsevier . 10.1016/B