This study was aimed at capturing the components comprising shared mental models (SMM) and the training methods used to address SMM in one athletic program context. To meet this aim, two soccer coaches from the same collegiate program were interviewed and observed extensively during practices and games throughout the 2009–2010 season. In addition, documents (e.g., players’ positioning on free kicks sheet) from the soccer program were reviewed. The data were analyzed inductively through a thematic analysis to develop models that operationalize SMM through its components, and training. Game intelligence and game philosophy were the two main operational themes defining SMM. Moreover, four themes emerged for SMM training: (a) the setting, (b) compensatory communication, (c) reinforcement, and (d) instruction. SMM was embedded within a more comprehensive conceptual framework of team chemistry, including emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions. Implications of these conceptual frameworks are considered for sport psychologists and coaches.
Lael Gershgoren, Edson Medeiros Filho, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Robert J. Schinke
Edson Filho, Lael Gershgoren, Itay Basevitch, Robert Schinke, and Gershon Tenenbaum
The present study was an initial attempt to capture and describe instances of shared mental models within a team from the point of view of the team captain. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to describe a range of perceived and shared behaviors aimed at facilitating the overall performance of a college volleyball team from the perspective of the team captain. This behavioral focus is congruent with the need for documenting observable task and team-related coordination mechanisms. Symbolic interactionism, via the use of systematic observations, documental analysis, and semistructured open-ended interviews, was used to gather data from the participant in the form of a case study. Data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) theoretical thematic analysis based on categories derived from Eccles and Tenenbaum’s (2004) Conceptual Framework of Coordination in Sport Teams. Results indicated that the player’s actions were perceived as enhancing proactive information sharing within her team. Therefore, it is suggested that team leaders possess important objective and symbolic roles in the promotion of shared mental models. These results are further discussed in relation to current knowledge of shared mental models in sports. Limitations and directions for future research are outlined.
, shared mental models (SMMs) and the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF), to propose a new applied framework called the shared zones of optimal functioning (SZOF). Teamwork is essential to performance in sports and beyond, and the SZOF framework detailed herein offers a theoretical and applied
Duncan R.D. Mascarenhas, Dave Collins, Patrick W. Mortimer, and Bob Morris
The purpose of this investigation was to pilot a video-based training program designed to develop referees’ shared mental models. A group of English Rugby Football Union (RFU) national referees, divided into a control group (n = 15) and experimental group (n = 41) made their immediate decisions on pre and posttests of 10 video clips taken from real game referee perspective recordings. Over a six-week period the experimental group studied training tapes consisting of 5 sets of 5 tackles, in each case with an expert providing his interpretation of the correct decision. The lowest ranked referees on the national panel significantly improved their percentage of correct decisions, becoming 17.43% more accurate in their decisions at the posttest. These results suggest that such shared mental model training is an appropriate method for improving referee performance.
Thomas Davies, Dave Collins, and Andrew Cruickshank
Despite substantial research in golf on preshot routines, our understanding of what elite golfers are or potentially should be focusing on beyond this phase of performance is limited. Accordingly, interviews were conducted with elite-level golfers and support practitioners to explore what golfers are and should be attending to before competition and between shots and holes. Results pointed to a number of important and novel processes for use at macro (i.e., precompetition) and meso (i.e., between shots and holes) levels, including the role of shared mental models across team members.
Line D. Danielsen, Rune Giske, Derek M. Peters, and Rune Høigaard
their teammate ( Marks, Zaccaro, & Mathieu, 2000 ). The ability to delegate assistance or allocate other players to cover when needed is included in backup behavior, and according to Salas, Sims, and Burke ( 2005 ), a prerequisite for such practices is an adequate shared mental model and a climate of
Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson
Edited by Kim Gammage
members over time bring rise to recognizable team-level processes related to cognition (e.g., shared mental models), motivation and affect (e.g., cohesion), and behavior (e.g., coordination). Despite this inherently dynamic nature, researchers commonly study the group processes at a static level through
Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen, and Thomas Schack
. , & Schack , T. ( 2009 ). The cognitive structure of movements in classical dance . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10 , 350 – 360 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.10.001 10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.10.001 Cannon-Bowers , J.A. , Salas , E. , & Converse , S.A. ( 1993 ). Shared mental models in
Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton, and Michelle M. McAlarnen
). Peer leadership and shared mental models in a college volleyball team: A season long case study . Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 8 ( 2 ), 184 – 203 . doi:10.1123/jcsp.2014-0021 10.1123/jcsp.2014-0021 Fransen , K. , Vanbeselaere , N. , De Cuyper , B. , Vande Broek , G. , & Boen , F
Jamie Taylor and Dave Collins
be conceptualized as a shared mental model (SMM) to shape and understand their developmental experiences. In short, the design and deployment of TD systems must be carefully integrated to optimize the coherence against the variability and variance of challenge (cf. Webb et al., 2016 ). Implications