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Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, and Sean P. Cumming

The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes’ cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.

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Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Sean P. Cumming, and Joel R. Grossbard

This article describes the development and validation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), a multidimensional measure of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety in sport performance settings. Scale development was stimulated by findings that the 3-factor structure of the original Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) could not be reproduced in child samples and that several items on the scale produced conflicting factor loadings in adult samples. Alternative items having readability levels of grade 4 or below were therefore written to create a new version suitable for both children and adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses replicated the original SAS factor structure at all age levels, yielding separate 5-item subscales for Somatic Anxiety, Worry, and Concentration Disruption in samples as young as 9 to 10 years of age. The SAS-2 has stronger factorial validity than the original scale did, and construct validity research indicates that scores relate to other psychological measures as expected. The scale reliably predicts precompetition state anxiety scores and proved sensitive to anxiety-reduction interventions directed at youth sport coaches and parents.

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Katherine A. Tamminen, Kaleigh Ferdinand Pennock, and Courtney Braun

, M.W. ( 2002 ). Sport performance anxiety in young athletes . In F.L. Smoll & R.E. Smith (Eds.), Children and youth in sport: A biopsychosocial perspective ( 2nd ed. , pp.  501 – 536 ). Dubuque, IA : Kendall/Hunt . Snyder , A.R. , Martinez , J.C. , Bay , R.C. , Parsons , J

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin, and Jean Côté

in Sports, 23 ( 3 ), 374 – 382 . PubMed ID: 22092356 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01383.x 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01383.x Smith , R.E. , Smoll , F.L. , & Cumming , S.P. ( 2007 ). Effects of a motivational climate intervention for coaches on young athletes’ sport performance anxiety

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Aynollah Naderi, Fatemeh Shaabani, Hassan Gharayagh Zandi, Luís Calmeiro, and Britton W. Brewer

. PubMed ID: 18484600 doi:10.1002/jclp.20491 10.1002/jclp.20491 Smith , R.E. , Smoll , F.L. , Cumming , S.P. , & Grossbard , J.R. ( 2006 ). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults: The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28

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Umut Doğan

design . SAGE Publications, Inc . https://dx-doi-org.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/10.4135/9781412961288 Smith , R. , Smoll , F. , Cumming , S. , & Grossbard , J. ( 2006 ). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults: The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 . Journal of Sport

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Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas

.1007/978-1-4614-0070-7_14 Smith , R.E. , Smoll , F.L. , & Cumming , S.P. ( 2007 ). Effects of a motivational climate intervention for coaches on young athletes’ sport performance anxiety . Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29 ( 1 ), 39 – 59 . PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.29.1.39 10.1123/jsep.29.1.39 Sparkes , A

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Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender, and Debra Hope

10.3 30 11.1  4–6 years 49 18.1 45 16.6  7–10 years 50 18.5 46 17  11 or more years 109 40.2 118 43.5 Measures Sport performance anxiety The SAS-2 ( Smith et al., 2006 ) was used to assess sport-performance anxiety. The SAS-2 is a 15-item measure that involves three subscales (Somatic Anxiety, Worry

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby, and Anne-Marie Elbe

.G. ( 2013 ). Swedish swimmers’ perception of parental involvement . Idrootsforum . Retrieved from https://idrottsforum.org/rodis131126/ Smith , R.E. , Smoll , F.L. , Cumming , S.P. , & Grossbard , J.R. ( 2006 ). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults

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Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou

climate intervention for coaches on young athletes’ sport performance anxiety . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29 ( 1 ), 39 – 59 . PubMed ID: 17556775 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.1.39 10.1123/jsep.29.1.39 Sotiriadou , K. , Quick , S. , & Shilbury , D. ( 2006 ). Sport for some: Elite versus