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Carolee Winstein

overcome barriers to arm use encountered in the natural repertoire of daily activities. We return to this point later in the paper. The only other stroke recovery RCT in the last decade to return positive results was the recent efficacy and safety of very early mobilization within 24 hr of stroke onset

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Brandon Rohrer, Susan Fasoli, Hermano Igo Krebs, Bruce Volpe, Walter R Frontera, Joel Stein, and Neville Hogan

Submovements are hypothesized building blocks of human movement, discrete ballistic movements of which more complex movements are composed. Using a novel algorithm, submovements were extracted from the point-to-point movements of 41 persons recovering from stroke. Analysis of the extracted submovements showed that, over the course of therapy, patients' submovements tended to increase in peak speed and duration. The number of submovements employed to produce a given movement decreased. The time between the peaks of adjacent submovements decreased for inpatients (those less than 1 month post-stroke), but not for outpatients (those greater than 12 months post-stroke) as a group. Submovements became more overlapped for all patients, but more markedly for inpatients. The strength and consistency with which it quantified patients' recovery indicates that analysis of submovement overlap might be a useful tool for measuring learning or other changes in motor behavior in future human movement studies.

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Brendon P. McDermott, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin, Matthew S. Ganio, Lawrence E. Armstrong, and Carl M. Maresh


To describe the current scientific evidence of recovery and return to activity following exertional heat stroke (EHS).

Data Sources:

Information was collected using MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus databases in English using combinations of key words, exertional heat stroke, recovery, rehabilitation, residual symptoms, heat tolerance, return to activity, and heat illness.

Study Selection:

Relevant peer-reviewed, military, and published text materials were reviewed.

Data Extraction:

Inclusion criteria were based on the article’s coverage of return to activity, residual symptoms, or testing for long-term treatment. Fifty-two out of the original 554 sources met these criteria and were included in data synthesis.

Data Synthesis:

The recovery time following EHS is dependent on numerous factors, and recovery length is individually based and largely dependent on the initial care provided.


Future research should focus on developing a structured return-to-activity strategy following EHS.

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley D. Henderson

unloader brace for Kellgren–Lawrence grades 3 to 4 osteoarthritis: a minimum 1-year follow-up study . Am J Knee Surg . 2016 ; 29 ( 8 ): 634 – 638 . PubMed ID: 27750364 doi:10.1055/s-0036-1593616 10.1055/s-0036-1593616 5. PEDro score . Canadian partnership for stroke recovery . https

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Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli

advancing treatment effectiveness. In 2017, the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable task force clarified many concepts and practices in poststroke rehabilitation but a common language for the control of motor actions was not considered ( Bernhardt et al., 2017 ). Therefore, it is time to provide a

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Shanie A.L. Jayasinghe, Rui Wang, Rani Gebara, Subir Biswas, and Rajiv Ranganathan

strategies for reaching in stroke . Brain . 2000 ; 123 ( 5 ): 940 – 953 . doi:10.1093/brain/123.5.940 10775539 10.1093/brain/123.5.940 13. Krakauer JW . Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation . Curr Opin Neurol . 2006 ; 19 ( 1 ): 84 – 90 . PubMed ID: 16415682 doi:10

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley Henderson

): 47 – 56 . PubMed ID: 31966969 doi:10.5312/wjo.v11.i1.47 10.5312/wjo.v11.i1.47 31966969 17. PEDro score . Canadian partnership for stroke recovery . . 18. Wiewelhove T , Döweling A , Schneider C , et al . A meta-analysis of the effects of

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley Henderson

). . 27479630 11. PEDro score . Canadian partnership for stroke recovery . . 12. Moraska AF , Stenerson L , Butryn N , Krutsch JP , Schmiege SJ , Mann JD . Myofascial trigger point

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Kyle North, Koki Kawaguchi, Michelle Perri, Megan Mormile, Russell T. Baker, James May, and Alan Nasypany

the cervical flexion-rotation test . J Headache Pain . 2010 ; 11 ( 5 ): 391 – 397 . PubMed ID: 20508964 doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0222-3 10.1007/s10194-010-0222-3 8. PEDro score . Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery . . 9. Moola S , Munn Z

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards

.1080/10413200109339004 Ietswaart , M. , Johnston , M. , Dijkerman , H.C. , Joice , S. , Scott , C.L. , MacWalter , R.S. , & Hamilton , S.J.C. ( 2011 ). Mental practice with motor imagery in stroke recovery: Randomized controlled trial of efficacy . Brain , 134 , 1373 – 1386 . PubMed doi: 10.1093/brain/awr077