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Brandon Rohrer, Susan Fasoli, Hermano Igo Krebs, Bruce Volpe, Walter R Frontera, Joel Stein, and Neville Hogan

Submovements are hypothesized building blocks of human movement, discrete ballistic movements of which more complex movements are composed. Using a novel algorithm, submovements were extracted from the point-to-point movements of 41 persons recovering from stroke. Analysis of the extracted submovements showed that, over the course of therapy, patients' submovements tended to increase in peak speed and duration. The number of submovements employed to produce a given movement decreased. The time between the peaks of adjacent submovements decreased for inpatients (those less than 1 month post-stroke), but not for outpatients (those greater than 12 months post-stroke) as a group. Submovements became more overlapped for all patients, but more markedly for inpatients. The strength and consistency with which it quantified patients' recovery indicates that analysis of submovement overlap might be a useful tool for measuring learning or other changes in motor behavior in future human movement studies.

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Brendon P. McDermott, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin, Matthew S. Ganio, Lawrence E. Armstrong, and Carl M. Maresh


To describe the current scientific evidence of recovery and return to activity following exertional heat stroke (EHS).

Data Sources:

Information was collected using MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus databases in English using combinations of key words, exertional heat stroke, recovery, rehabilitation, residual symptoms, heat tolerance, return to activity, and heat illness.

Study Selection:

Relevant peer-reviewed, military, and published text materials were reviewed.

Data Extraction:

Inclusion criteria were based on the article’s coverage of return to activity, residual symptoms, or testing for long-term treatment. Fifty-two out of the original 554 sources met these criteria and were included in data synthesis.

Data Synthesis:

The recovery time following EHS is dependent on numerous factors, and recovery length is individually based and largely dependent on the initial care provided.


Future research should focus on developing a structured return-to-activity strategy following EHS.

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley D. Henderson

unloader brace for Kellgren–Lawrence grades 3 to 4 osteoarthritis: a minimum 1-year follow-up study . Am J Knee Surg . 2016 ; 29 ( 8 ): 634 – 638 . PubMed ID: 27750364 doi:10.1055/s-0036-1593616 10.1055/s-0036-1593616 5. PEDro score . Canadian partnership for stroke recovery . https

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley Henderson

): 47 – 56 . PubMed ID: 31966969 doi:10.5312/wjo.v11.i1.47 10.5312/wjo.v11.i1.47 31966969 17. PEDro score . Canadian partnership for stroke recovery . . 18. Wiewelhove T , Döweling A , Schneider C , et al . A meta-analysis of the effects of

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley Henderson

). . 27479630 11. PEDro score . Canadian partnership for stroke recovery . . 12. Moraska AF , Stenerson L , Butryn N , Krutsch JP , Schmiege SJ , Mann JD . Myofascial trigger point

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Kyle North, Koki Kawaguchi, Michelle Perri, Megan Mormile, Russell T. Baker, James May, and Alan Nasypany

the cervical flexion-rotation test . J Headache Pain . 2010 ; 11 ( 5 ): 391 – 397 . PubMed ID: 20508964 doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0222-3 10.1007/s10194-010-0222-3 8. PEDro score . Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery . . 9. Moola S , Munn Z

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Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

Engineering , 20 ( 3 ), 320 – 330 . PubMed doi:10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2191574 10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2191574 Baron , J.C. , Cohen , L.G. , Cramer , S.C. , Dobkin , B.H. , Johansen-Berg , H. , Loubinoux , I. , . . . First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery . ( 2004

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

. Billinger SA , Boyne P , Coughenour E , Dunning K , Mattlage A . Does aerobic exercise and the FITT principle fit into stroke recovery? Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep . 2015 ; 15 : 519 . PubMed ID: 25475494 doi:10.1007/s11910-014-0519-8 25475494 10.1007/s11910-014-0519-8 19. Ministério da

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh, and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

training and undergoing stroke recovery, 27 – 29 research is demonstrating comparable functional rehabilitation outcomes to traditional treatment modalities. 27 , 28 , 30 , 31 From a psychological perspective, existing research has demonstrated equivocal support for a range of behavioral (eg

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Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli

advancing treatment effectiveness. In 2017, the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable task force clarified many concepts and practices in poststroke rehabilitation but a common language for the control of motor actions was not considered ( Bernhardt et al., 2017 ). Therefore, it is time to provide a