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Carolee Winstein

overcome barriers to arm use encountered in the natural repertoire of daily activities. We return to this point later in the paper. The only other stroke recovery RCT in the last decade to return positive results was the recent efficacy and safety of very early mobilization within 24 hr of stroke onset

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Brandon Rohrer, Susan Fasoli, Hermano Igo Krebs, Bruce Volpe, Walter R Frontera, Joel Stein, and Neville Hogan

Submovements are hypothesized building blocks of human movement, discrete ballistic movements of which more complex movements are composed. Using a novel algorithm, submovements were extracted from the point-to-point movements of 41 persons recovering from stroke. Analysis of the extracted submovements showed that, over the course of therapy, patients' submovements tended to increase in peak speed and duration. The number of submovements employed to produce a given movement decreased. The time between the peaks of adjacent submovements decreased for inpatients (those less than 1 month post-stroke), but not for outpatients (those greater than 12 months post-stroke) as a group. Submovements became more overlapped for all patients, but more markedly for inpatients. The strength and consistency with which it quantified patients' recovery indicates that analysis of submovement overlap might be a useful tool for measuring learning or other changes in motor behavior in future human movement studies.

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards

.1080/10413200109339004 Ietswaart , M. , Johnston , M. , Dijkerman , H.C. , Joice , S. , Scott , C.L. , MacWalter , R.S. , & Hamilton , S.J.C. ( 2011 ). Mental practice with motor imagery in stroke recovery: Randomized controlled trial of efficacy . Brain , 134 , 1373 – 1386 . PubMed doi: 10.1093/brain/awr077

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Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

Engineering , 20 ( 3 ), 320 – 330 . PubMed doi:10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2191574 10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2191574 Baron , J.C. , Cohen , L.G. , Cramer , S.C. , Dobkin , B.H. , Johansen-Berg , H. , Loubinoux , I. , . . . First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery . ( 2004

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Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli

advancing treatment effectiveness. In 2017, the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable task force clarified many concepts and practices in poststroke rehabilitation but a common language for the control of motor actions was not considered ( Bernhardt et al., 2017 ). Therefore, it is time to provide a

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Shanie A.L. Jayasinghe, Rui Wang, Rani Gebara, Subir Biswas, and Rajiv Ranganathan

strategies for reaching in stroke . Brain . 2000 ; 123 ( 5 ): 940 – 953 . doi:10.1093/brain/123.5.940 10775539 10.1093/brain/123.5.940 13. Krakauer JW . Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation . Curr Opin Neurol . 2006 ; 19 ( 1 ): 84 – 90 . PubMed ID: 16415682 doi:10

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Masashi Kanai, Masafumi Nozoe, Takuro Ohtsubo, Iori Yasumoto, and Katsuhiro Ueno

present study could not be explored because of the cross-sectional study, improving functional outcome in patients with stroke in the early stages of hospitalization might be better focused on physical activity rather than sarcopenia. In terms of stroke recovery and physical activity, Diep et al. ( 2010

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Ivonne H.F. Duiser, Annick Ledebt, John van der Kamp, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

_BwE Rohrer , B. , Fasoli , S. , Krebs , H.I. , Hughes , R. , Volpe , B. , Frontera , W.R. , Stein , J. , & Hogan , N. ( 2002 ). Movement smoothness changes during stroke recovery . The Journal of Neuroscience, 22 ( 18 ), 8297 – 8304 . https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22