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Hermann-J. Engels, John C. Wirth, Sueda Celik and Jodee L. Dorsey

This study assessed the influence of caffeine on metabolic and cardiovascular functions during sustained, light intensity cycling and at rest. Eight healthy, recreationally active adults participated in four randomly assigned, double-blind experimental trials of 60 min upright seated cycle exercise (30% VO2max) or equivalent rest with caffeine (5 mg ⋅ kg−1) or placebo consumed 60 min prior to data collection. Gas exchange was measured by open-circuit spirom-etry indirect calorimetry. Global blood flow was evaluated by thoracic impedance cardiography and arterial blood pressure by auscultation. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that pretrial caffeine increased oxygen uptake and energy expenditure rate (p < 0.05) but did not change respiratory exchange ratio. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were elevated following caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance were not significantly different between caffeine and placebo sessions. For each of the metabolic and hemodynamic variables examined, the effects of caffeine were similar during constant-load, light intensity cycling and at rest. These data illustrate that caffeine's mild thermogenic influence can be mediated without a major shift in substrate oxidation mixture. Caffeine at this dosage level alters cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting arterial blood pressure.

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Teri Todd, Greg Reid and Lynn Butler-Kisber

Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included self-monitoring, goal setting, and self-reinforcement. Of particular interest was the development of self-efficacy during the physical activity as a mediator of goal setting. A multiple baseline changing criterion design established the effectiveness of the intervention. The results suggest that self-regulation interventions can promote sustained participation in physical activity for adolescents with severe autism.

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

of helping an overtrained athlete to regain sustainable high performance. In a recent study, we investigated the longitudinal training characteristics of the world’s best female XC skier. 4 After being the world’s highest ranked female XC skier from 2004 to 2006, the athlete experienced a critical

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Taylor K. Dinyer, M. Travis Byrd, Ashley N. Vesotsky, Pasquale J. Succi and Haley C. Bergstrom

within the severe exercise intensity domain results in V ˙ O 2 values that are driven to V ˙ O 2 peak and T lim values within ∼20 minutes. 13 , 14 Thus, CP provides the demarcation of sustainable and nonsustainable exercise intensities that reflect distinct physiological responses. The 3-parameter

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Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough and Robert F. Chapman

significantly increase maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and improve endurance performance outcomes. 15 , 23 – 25 The TIRE protocol requires the subject to forcefully exhale to residual volume, immediately followed by a sustained maximal inhalation to total lung capacity against resistance provided by a 2-mm

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

Caffeine, a trimethylxanthine, is a ubiquitous socially acceptable drug with no apparent long-term health effects. 1 Although there is some evidence that caffeine may improve single 2 and repeated sprint activities, 3 effects are most consistently observed in sustained bouts of high

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Davide Ferioli, Ermanno Rampinini, Andrea Bosio, Antonio La Torre and Nicola A. Maffiuletti

compared the COD ability and the ability to sustain repeated COD efforts of adult players competing at different levels. 6 – 11 COD exercises were found to discriminate professional and semiprofessional adult male basketball players from their lower level counterparts, 7 , 10 , 11 whereas professional

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Edward J. Bradley, Bob Hogg and David T. Archer

increased each year from 7.5 to 10.8 seconds, an overall increase of very large magnitude (44%, ES = 3.0). 14 Reported sustained push forces in machine scrummaging with an international pack of 8 kN under the CTS process compared with 15.8 kN during engagement. Similarly, Cazzola et al 16 have shown that

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

efficiency and an ability to sustain a high percentage of V ˙ O 2 max for hours. 35.9–73.1 15.8–20.1 Judelson et al 33 1 W 24 Competitive SS, ANT, HR, RPE Training, acclimatization, and feedings can safely maintain elevated exercise intensities for long durations during OWS events. 32.2 19.1 ± 0

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

, respectively. The instantaneous running speed sustained by each player during the COD levels was recorded using a radar device (Stalker ATS; Radar Sales, Minneapolis, MN). Furthermore, actual instantaneous metabolic power was estimated to quantify the actual exercise intensity during each COD level using the