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Current Match-Analysis Techniques’ Underestimation of Intense Periods of High-Velocity Running

Matthew C. Varley, George P. Elias, and Robert J. Aughey

Purpose:

To compare the peak 5-min period of high-velocity running (HiVR) during a soccer match using a predefined vs a rolling time interval.

Methods:

Player movement data were collected from 19 elite Australian soccer players over 11 competitive matches (77 individual match files) using a 5-Hz global-positioning system. Raw velocity data were analyzed to determine the period containing the greatest HiVR distance per match half and the distance covered in the subsequent epoch. Intervals were identified using either a predefined (distance covered in 5 min at every 5-min time point) or rolling (distance covered in 5 min from every time point) method. The percentage difference ± 90% confidence limits were used to determine differences between methods.

Results:

Predefined periods underestimated peak distance covered by up to 25% and overestimated the subsequent epoch by up to 31% compared with rolling periods. When the distance decrement between the peak and following period was determined, there was up to a 52% greater reduction in running performance using rolling periods than predefined ones.

Conclusions:

It is recommended that researchers use rolling as opposed to predefined periods when determining specific match intervals because they provide a more accurate representation of the HiVR distance covered. This will avoid underestimation of both match running distance and the decrement in running performance after an intense period of play. This may have practical implications for not only researchers but also staff involved in a club setting who use this reduction as evidence of transient fatigue during a match.

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Preliminary Evidence of Transient Fatigue and Pacing During Interchanges in Rugby League

Mark Waldron, Jamie Highton, Matthew Daniels, and Craig Twist

Purpose:

This study aimed to quantify changes in heart rate (HR) and movement speeds in interchanged and whole-match players during 35 elite rugby league performances.

Methods:

Performances were separated into whole match, interchange bout 1, and interchange bout 2 and further subdivided into match quartiles. Mean percentages of peak HR (%HRpeak) and total and high-intensity running (> 14 km/h) meters per minute (m/min) were recorded.

Results:

For whole-match players, a decline in high-intensity m/min and %HRpeak was observed between successive quartiles (P < .05). High-intensity m/min during interchange 1 also progressively declined, although initial m/min was higher than whole match (24.2 ± 7.9 m/min vs 18.3 ± 4.7 m/min, P = .018), and %HRpeak did not change over match quartiles (P > .05). During interchange 2, there was a decline in high-intensity m/min from quartile 1 to quartile 3 (18 ± 4.1 vs 13.4 ± 5 m/min, P = .048) before increasing in quartile 4. Quartiles 1 and 2 also showed an increase in %HRpeak (85.2 ± 6.5 vs 87.3 ± 4.2%, P = .022).

Conclusions:

Replacement players adopted a high initial intensity in their first match quartile before a severe decline thereafter. However, in a second bout, lower exercise intensity at the outset enabled a higher physiological exertion for later periods. These findings inform interchange strategy and conditioning for coaches while also providing preliminary evidence of pacing in team sport.

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Lower Running Performance and Exacerbated Fatigue in Soccer Played at 1600 m

Laura A. Garvican, Kristal Hammond, Matthew C. Varley, Christopher J. Gore, Francois Billaut, and Robert J. Aughey

Purpose:

This study investigated the decrement in running performance of elite soccer players competing at low altitude and time course for abatement of these decrements.

Methods:

Twenty elite youth soccer players had their activity profile, in a sea-level (SL) and 2 altitude (Alt, 1600 m, d 4, and d 6) matches, measured with a global positioning system. Measures expressed in meters per minute of match time were total distance, low- and high-velocity running (LoVR, 0.01–4.16 m/s; HiVR, 4.17–10.0 m/s), and frequency of maximal accelerations (>2.78 m/s2). The peak and subsequent stanza for each measure were identified and a transient fatigue index calculated. Mean heart rate (HR) during the final minute of a submaximal running task (5 min, 11 km/h) was recorded at SL and for 10 d at Alt. Differences were determined between SL and Alt using percentage change and effect-size (ES) statistic with 90% confidence intervals.

Results:

Mean HR almost certainly increased on d 1 (5.4%, ES 1.01 ± 0.35) and remained probably elevated on both d 2 (ES 0.42 ± 0.31) and d3 (ES 0.30 ± 0.25), returning to baseline at d 5. Total distance was almost certainly lower than SL (ES –0.76 ± 0.37) at d 4 and remained probably reduced on d 6 (ES –0.42 ± 0.36). HiVR probably decreased at d 4 vs SL (–0.47 ± 0.59), with no clear effect of altitude at d 6 (–0.08 ± 0.41). Transient fatigue in matches was evident at SL and Alt, with a possibly greater decrement at Alt.

Conclusion:

Despite some physiological adaptation, match running performance of youth soccer players is compromised for at least 6 d at low altitude.

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The Reproducibility and External Validity of a Modified Rugby League Movement-Simulation Protocol for Interchange Players

Jonathan P. Norris, Jamie Highton, and Craig Twist

. Waldron M , Highton J , Daniels M , Twist C . Preliminary evidence of transient fatigue and pacing during interchanges in rugby league . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2013 ; 8 : 157 – 164 . PubMed ID: 22902435 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.2.157 22902435 10.1123/ijspp.8.2.157 3. Kempton T

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The Influence of Rotations on Match Running Performance in Female Australian Football Midfielders

Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole, and Brian Dawson

– 548 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.09.004 19853508 10.1016/j.jsams.2009.09.004 5. Waldron M , Highton J , Daniels M , Twist C . Preliminary evidence of transient fatigue and pacing during interchanges in rugby league . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2013 ; 8 ( 2 ): 157 – 164 . PubMed

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Effect of Volume on Eccentric Overload–Induced Postactivation Potentiation of Jumps

Kevin L. de Keijzer, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono, and Marco Beato

and multiple sets of EOL squats on PAP response would have occurred as a consequence of the balance between transient fatigue and potentiation, both present at the completion of the conditioning activity. 1 , 2 , 7 A higher exercise volume may have increased the neuromuscular response, but may also

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Perspectives on Postmatch Fatigue From 300 Elite European Soccer Players

Valter Di Salvo, Daniele Bonanno, Mattia Modonutti, Andrea Scanavino, Claudio Donatelli, Fabio Pigozzi, and Lorenzo Lolli

Intermittent and often unforeseeable movement patterns characterize soccer performance. 1 In this context, official match play constitutes the most demanding phase during a microcycle, 1 with players experiencing states of transient fatigue during (performance fatigability) and in the hours

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Variability of External Load Measures During Soccer Match Play: Influence of Player Fitness or Pacing?

Alireza Rabbani, Giorgios Ermidis, Filipe Manuel Clemente, and Craig Twist

Soccer is an intense intermittent sport requiring players to maintain their physical performance during a match. 1 Players often experience fatigue during the match, which can have an impact on their performance after short periods of intense activity (ie, transient fatigue) in the end of the

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Influence of Contextual Factors, Technical Performance, and Movement Demands on the Subjective Task Load Associated With Professional Rugby League Match-Play

Thomas Mullen, Craig Twist, Matthew Daniels, Nicholas Dobbin, and Jamie Highton

.0b013e31818cb278 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278 31. Waldron M , Highton J , Daniels M , Twist C . Preliminary evidence of transient fatigue and pacing during interchanges in rugby league . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2013 ; 8 ( 2 ): 157 – 164 . PubMed ID: 22902435 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8

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Physiological and Perceptual Recovery-Stress Responses to an Elite Netball Tournament

Suzanna Russell, Marni J. Simpson, Angus G. Evans, Tristan J. Coulter, and Vincent G. Kelly

.1080/24748668.2008.11868443 35. Waldron M , Highton J , Daniels M , Twist C . Preliminary evidence of transient fatigue and pacing during interchanges in rugby league . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2013 ; 8 ( 2 ): 157 – 164 . PubMed ID: 22902435 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.2.157 36. Mooney M , Cormack S , O