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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

clear consensus has not been agreed upon. Finally, treadmill versus overground walking may produce differences in scaling exponents, as treadmill walking generally reduces the scaling exponent ( Terrier & Deriaz, 2011 ). In addition to preferred speed walking conditions, long-range correlations in young

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David I. Anderson

 al., used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine activity of the primary motor cortex as 6- and 12-month-old infants performed two tasks: a reaching task and stepping while supported on a treadmill ( Nishiyori, Bisconti, Meehan, & Ulrich, 2016 ). The overarching finding was that infants

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Leah E. Robinson

used an integrated framework to visually describe how motor skills develop along with the lifelong changes and constraints on these movement behaviors. The monograph of the infant treadmill-stepping study by Thelen and Ulrich ( 1991 ) challenged the current theories of child development. That study

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Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

simple and ensure we were able to collect reliable data in the context we designed for infants. The tasks we worked with (reaching while seated in an infant seat and stepping on a motorized treadmill with support, Figure  1 ) and infant ages (6 and 12 months) were chosen to allow examination of

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David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson and Dinesh John

. For example, step counts between several brands of consumer activity trackers are similar both for treadmill walking at fixed speeds ( Fokkema, Kooiman, Krijnen, Van Der Schans, & De Groot, 2017 ; Kooiman et al., 2015 ) and under free-living conditions ( Kooiman et al., 2015 ; Rosenberger, Buman

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Carolee Winstein

. PubMed 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181ab2b27 Duncan , P.W. , Sullivan , K.J. , Behrman , A.L. , Azen , S.P. , Wu , S.S. , Nadeau , S.E. , … Hayden , S.K. ( 2011 ). Body-weight-supported treadmill rehabilitation after stroke . The New England Journal of Medicine, 364 ( 21 ), 2026 – 2036 . PubMed

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

cadence thresholds corresponding to an absolutely defined moderate and vigorous intensity (metabolic equivalents of task; METs). Since then, a number of studies have further examined this relationship in different populations and under different conditions (e.g., treadmill vs. overground, direct

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

, M. , Pendergast , D.R. , Willer , B. , & Leddy , J. ( 2016 ). Cerebral blood flow during treadmill exercise is a marker of physiological postconcussion syndrome in female athletes . Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31 , 215 – 224 . doi:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000145 10.1097/HTR

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

’s manual wheelchair at a “comfortable” pace for 6 min required 3.1 SCI METs ( Lynch et al., 2015 ). Furthermore, ambulatory individuals with SCI have significantly greater energy expenditure during walking than able-bodied controls. During a body-weight-supported treadmill walking session, ambulatory

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Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont

. , Deak , T. , Spencer , R.L. , Roth , D. , & Fleshner , M. ( 2000 ). Treadmill running produces both positive and negative physiological adaptations in Sprague-Dawley rats . American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279 ( 4 ), R1321 – R1329 . PubMed