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Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng, and Gashaw Abeza

empirically informed understanding of season ticket holders’ social media usage patterns and the gratifications sought in the consumption of social media during live sports games. To accomplish the study’s purpose, we draw upon the uses and gratifications theory (UGT) and employ survey data collected from

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Joseph H. Moore

study focused on college students, with uses-and-gratification theory as its basis. The present study sought to answer these questions through an experimental design as it examined the retention of sport news presented in both the traditional format and through Twitter. Literature Review Trends in Sport

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Michelle Hayes, Kevin Filo, Caroline Riot, and Andrea Geurin

, T. ( 2012 , July 31 ). London 2012 Olympics: The first Twitter Games opens debate of athletes using social media . The Telegraph . Retrieved from https://goo.gl/g1msUY Ruggiero , T.E. ( 2000 ). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century . Mass Communication & Society, 3 ( 1

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Marion E. Hambrick, Jason M. Simmons, Greg P. Greenhalgh, and T. Christopher Greenwell

The online social network Twitter has grown exponentially since 2008. The current study examined Twitter use among professional athletes who use Twitter to communicate with fans and other players. The study used content analysis to place 1,962 tweets by professional athletes into one of six categories: interactivity, diversion, information sharing, content, promotional, and fanship. Many of the tweets fell into the interactivity category (34%). Athletes used Twitter to converse directly with their followers. Those with the most followers had more interactivity tweets. A large percentage of tweets (28%) fell into the diversion category, because many of the tweets involved non-sports-related topics, and relatively few of the tweets (15%) involved players discussing their own teams or sports. In addition, only 5% of the tweets were promotional in nature, indicating that professional athletes may not be taking advantage of the promotional opportunities Twitter may provide.

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Seok Kang, Soonhwan Lee, and Seungbum Lee

The current study examined student athletes’ motives for viewing sports programs on television and their relationships with various viewing behaviors. Employing uses and gratifications theory and social differentiation theory, the study investigated whether student athletes’ motives for sports-program viewing would predict their preference of program selection and amount of viewing. An on-site survey of 225 Division I athletes from 3 Midwestern universities found that student athletes had entertainment, social-facilitation, and integration motives for sports-program viewing. Ritual use of sports programs (entertainment) was their primary motive, followed by instrumental use (social facilitation and integration). Results showed that student athletes’ main goal of watching sports programs on television was escape from their daily problems. Additional results showed that there was no gender difference in student athletes’ motives and sports-program preferences. Both male and female student athletes preferred male sports such as football and men’s college basketball.

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Andrea N. Geurin-Eagleman

Masters sport participation is continually increasing, and although much research has uncovered masters participation motives, it has been noted that an understanding of community among masters athletes was also necessary. Online communities of sport participants have been examined only minimally, with research uncovering correlations between new-media use and sport-participation frequency. Using uses and gratifications theory, this study sought to examine masters gymnastics participants to develop a better understanding of athletes’ use of online communities in relation to their sport participation and examine differences in online community use based on demographics. Online survey results from 164 international participants revealed they used new media primarily for fanship, information, and technical knowledge, and online masters gymnastics communities were most often extensions of in-person training groups and communities. These findings and their implications are discussed in the article.

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John S.W. Spinda, Daniel L. Wann, and Michael Sollitto

In this case study analysis, we explored the motives for playing Strat-O-Matic Baseball (SOMB), a baseball simulation played as a board game or online, from the perspective of the uses-and-gratifications theory. In phase I of the study, SOMB manager narratives (N = 50) were analyzed for motive statements. In phase II, an online survey asked SOMB managers (N = 222) to respond to motive items as well as four measures of Major League Baseball (MLB) and SOMB identification. Overall, eight motives for playing SOMB emerged from the 64-item pool of motive items. These eight motives were nostalgia, knowledge acquisition, social bonding, enjoyment, vicarious achievement, game aesthetics, convenience, and escape. Our findings suggest these motives predicted measures of MLB and SOMB identification in significantly different ways. Theoretical implications, future research, limitations, and discussion questions are presented in this analysis.

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Craig A. Morehead, Brendan O’Hallarn, and Stephen L. Shapiro

The Internet has drastically changed how society seeks and consumes information. One influential change in the communication process is the widespread use—and perhaps abuse—of user-generated content. If provided a frame of reference to help direct the discussion, such as a news story, comment functions can act as a proxy “town hall” in a virtual setting. Unique to this cyber town hall, however, is the sense of anonymity that leads some users to post content they would not normally voice in a public context. This investigation intertwines uses-and-gratifications theory and online disinhibition effect by analyzing anonymous-comment postings on a newspaper Web site. Seven newspaper stories on the campus master plan and football-stadium proposal at Old Dominion University demonstrate the sociological underpinnings where sports, education, economics, and politics intersect in an anonymous forum where users can relay their opinion on the subject while remaining invisible and unidentified.

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Lillian Feder

of uses and gratification theory . Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 8 ( 2 ), 81 – 104 . Feder , L . ( 2019 ). Athlete activism online: An examination of subsequent fan engagement (Unpublished master’s thesis). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University . Retrieved from

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Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown, Samuel D. Hakim, Andrew C. Billings, and Carla H. Blakey

have the potential to be active producers of content and information, whether sending an e-mail or using Internet collaboration tools ( Lewis et al., 2017 ). According to uses-and-gratifications theory, users differ in the gratifications they seek from mass media. The uses-and-gratifications framework