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Jeff Huber

Previous research has identified specific differences in cognition between experts and novices in problem-solving domains. To address the question of whether similar distinctions exist among springboard divers, six differences in problem representation and four differences in procedural knowledge were studied in elite and nonelite springboard divers. Subjects reported their thoughts immediately following dive performance. Verbal reports were converted into problem representations and production rules. Analysis of the representations and production rules revealed differences between elite and nonelite divers consistent with distinctions found between expert and novice problem-solvers. Elite problem representations contained more higher order concepts than nonelite representations. Moreover, the elite representations were more richly embedded, containing more concepts, features, and interrelations than the nonelite representations. Also, elite divers cited more production rules than nonelite divers. Elite production rules displayed a greater degree of sophistication in discrimination, proceduralization, composition, and strengthening.

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Alexander Tibor Latinjak

-directed thinking might represent reason, although the voice of intuition might talk back. Methodological Considerations All thought-sampling procedures have limitations, as they rely on conscious awareness and memory ( Nisbett & Wilson, 1977 ). In this study, a written verbal-report protocol was chosen. Verbal

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Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó, and Nikos Comoutos

Fitness, 57 , 1407 – 1414 . PubMed doi:10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07030-X Nisbett , R. , & Wilson , T. ( 1977 ). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes . Psychological Review, 84 , 231 – 259 . doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.3.231 10.1037/0033-295X.84.3.231 Scanlan , A

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Yani L. Dickens, Judy Van Raalte, and Russell T. Hurlburt

and toward using DES to explore it. They diligently adhered to the DES sampling method. Based on their verbal reports and our direct behavioral observations, they showed very minimal observable reactivity. After the first sampling day, only rarely (1 natural environment sample; 2 golf samples) did the

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Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski, and Shane Pill

is proposed as a reason why unconscious and implicit processes for decision making are unknown, and that many verbal reports on conscious and explicit decision making focus on the reasons behind a decision, or the product of a decision ( Raab, 2003 ). On the basis of evidence presented earlier, we

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James Stephenson, Colum Cronin, and Amy E. Whitehead

). Verbal reports of cognitive processes . In G. Tenenbaum , R.C. Eklund , & A. Kamata (Eds.), Measurement in sport and exercise psychology (pp.  103 – 117 ). Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics . Eccles , D.W. , & Arsal , G. ( 2017 ). The think aloud method: What is it and how do I use it

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Phil D.J. Birch, Beth Yeoman, and Amy E. Whitehead

.02755 Ericsson , K.A. , & Simon , H.A. ( 1993 ). Verbal reports as data . MIT Press . 10.7551/mitpress/5657.001.0001 Fitts , P.M. , & Posner , M.I. ( 1967 ). Human performance . Brooks/Cole . Fox , M.C. , Ericsson , K.A. , & Best , R. ( 2011 ). Do procedures for verbal reporting of thinking

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Robert Weinberg

. The Sport Psychologist, 32 ( 1 ). doi:10.1123/tsp.2017-0018 10.1123/tsp.2017-0018 Nisbett , R. , & Wilson , T. ( 1977 ). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes . Psychological Review, 84 , 231 – 259 . doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.3.231 10.1037/0033-295X.84

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Laura Swettenham and Amy E. Whitehead

-performance sport coach education program: A Foucauldian analysis of coach developers . International Sport Coaching Journal, 7 ( 3 ), 347 – 359 . doi:10.1123/iscj.2018-0093 10.1123/iscj.2018-0093 Ericsson , K.A. , & Simon , H.A. ( 1980 ). Verbal reports as data . Psychological Review, 87 ( 3 ), 215

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Michael Ashford, Andrew Abraham, and Jamie Poolton

. , McRobert , A. , Williams , A.M. , & Mesquita , I. ( 2012 ). The perceptual cognitive processes underpinning skilled performance in volleyball: Evidence from eye-movements and verbal reports of thinking involving an in situ representative task . Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11 ( 2