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Howard N. Zelaznik

concerned with the nature of the speed accuracy trade-off in manual control ( Fitts, 1954 ; Meyer et al., 1982 ; Schmidt et al., 1979 ). In two experiments participants were required to perform several Fittslaw tasks as well as linear speed accuracy trade-off tasks. The Fitts tasks required individuals

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis, and Albertas Skurvydas

, one more motor control determinant becomes an important “player”: variability of motor performance. According to Harris and Wolpert ( 1998 ), minimum-variance theory accurately predicts the trajectories of movements and the speed–accuracy trade-off described by Fittslaw. Moreover, Bertucco, Bhanpuri

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Robert W. Christina

By 1967, motor control and learning researchers had adopted an information processing (IP) approach. Central to that research was understanding how movement information was processed, coded, stored, and represented in memory. It also was centered on understanding motor control and learning in terms of Fitts’ law, closed-loop and schema theories, motor programs, contextual interference, modeling, mental practice, attentional focus, and how practice and augmented feedback could be organized to optimize learning. Our constraints-based research from the 1980s into the 2000s searched for principles of “self-organization”, and answers to the degrees-of-freedom problem, that is, how the human motor system with so many independent parts could be controlled without the need for an executive decision maker as proposed by the IP approach. By 2007 we were thinking about where the IP and constraints-based views were divergent and complementary, and whether neural-based models could bring together the behavior and biological mechanisms underlying the processes of motor control and learning.

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Scott Kretchmar and Mark L. Latash

performed by psychologists, one of the established laws is the Fittslaw ( Fitts, 1954 ), which links movement time (MT) to an index of task difficulty (ID) computed as the ratio of movement distance to target size: MT =  a  +  b ·log(ID), where a and b are constants. Fittslaw has been confirmed