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Effects of Inversion Perturbation After Step-Down on the Latency of the Peroneus Longus and Peroneus Brevis

Adam C. Knight and Wendi H. Weimar

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of different types of ankle sprains on the response latency of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis to an inversion perturbation, as well as the time to complete the perturbation (time to maximum inversion). To create a forced inversion moment of the ankle, an outer sole with fulcrum was used to cause 25 degrees of inversion at the ankle upon landing from a 27 cm step-down task. Forty participants completed the study: 15 participants had no history of any ankle sprain, 15 participants had a history of a lateral ankle sprain, and 10 participants had a history of a high ankle sprain. There was not a significant difference between the injury groups for the latency measurements or the time to maximum inversion. These findings indicate that a previous lateral ankle sprain or high ankle sprain does not affect the latency of the peroneal muscles or the time to complete the inversion range of motion.

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Lower-Extremity Kinematics During Ankle Inversion Perturbations: A Novel Experimental Protocol That Simulates an Unexpected Lateral Ankle Sprain Mechanism

Jeffrey D. Simpson, Ethan M. Stewart, Anastasia M. Mosby, David M. Macias, Harish Chander, and Adam C. Knight

nature of the LAS mechanism is often one factor that is difficult to control and replicate using laboratory simulations. 4 Increased activation of the lateral ankle musculature, specifically the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis, in anticipation to ankle inversion perturbations is often cited as a

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Closed-Loop Reflex Responses of the Lateral Ankle Musculature From Various Thresholds During a Lateral Ankle Sprain Perturbation

Jeffrey D. Simpson, Ludmila Cosio Lima, Youngil Lee, Harish Chander, and Adam C. Knight

placed on the lateral ankle ligaments. 4 , 5 However, this monosynaptic pathway results in a time delay, frequently referred to as fibularis latency, between the initiation of ankle joint motion and reflexive activation of the lateral ankle musculature. 3 Fibularis latency during inversion perturbations

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Cryotherapy Does Not Affect Peroneal Reaction Following Sudden Inversion

Christine L. Berg, Joseph M. Hart, Riann Palmieri-Smith, Kevin M. Cross, and Christopher D. Ingersoll

Context:

If ankle joint cryotherapy impairs the ability of the ankle musculature to counteract potentially injurious forces, the ankle is left vulnerable to injury.

Objective:

To compare peroneal reaction to sudden inversion following ankle joint cryotherapy.

Design:

Repeated measures design with independent variables, treatment (cryotherapy and control), and time (baseline, immediately post treatment, 15 minutes post treatment, and 30 minutes post treatment).

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants:

Twenty-seven healthy volunteers.

Intervention(s):

An ice bag was secured to the lateral ankle joint for 20 minutes.

Main Outcome Measures:

The onset and average root mean square amplitude of EMG activity in the peroneal muscles was calculated following the release of a trap door mechanism causing inversion.

Results:

There was no statistically significant change from baseline for peroneal reaction time or average peroneal muscle activity at any post treatment time.

Conclusions:

Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal muscle reaction following sudden inversion perturbation.

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Difference in Response Latency of the Peroneus Longus Between the Dominant and Nondominant Legs

Adam C. Knight and Wendi H. Weimar

Context:

The latency of the peroneus longus in response to an inversion perturbation is a key component in the prevention of lateral ankle sprains. In addition, the dominant ankle is sprained more frequently than the nondominant ankle, but the cause of this has not been examined.

Objective:

To investigate the combination of these 2 research-supported statements, the purpose of this study was to use an inversion perturbation that replicates the mechanism of a lateral ankle sprain to determine whether there is a difference in the latency of the peroneus longus between the dominant and nondominant legs.

Design:

Repeated-measures single-group design.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

15 physically active healthy volunteers with no previous history of an ankle sprain or lower extremity surgery or fracture.

Interventions:

Outer sole with fulcrum was used to cause 25° of inversion at the subtalar joint on landing from a 27-cm step-down task. Participants performed 10 trials on both the dominant and nondominant leg.

Main Outcome Measures:

2 latency measures of the peroneus longus of both the dominant and nondominant leg, calculated as the amount of time from the moment of touchdown of the fulcrum until muscle activity exceeded 5 and 10 SD above baseline muscle activity.

Results:

The latency of the peroneus longus of the nondominant leg was significantly shorter when using both 5 SD (F 1,14 = 9.34, P = .009, d = .895) and 10 SD (F 1,14 = 18.56, P = .001, d = .920) above baseline muscle activity.

Conclusions:

This difference in latency may be a result of the different demands placed on the dominant and nondominant legs during activity and may predispose the dominant ankle to a greater number of ankle sprains than the nondominant ankle.

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Difference in Ratio of Evertor to Invertor Activity Between the Dominant and Nondominant Legs During Simulated Lateral Ankle Sprain

Adam C. Knight and Wendi H. Weimar

Context:

The dominant and nondominant legs respond asymmetrically during landing tasks, and this difference may occur during an inversion perturbation and provide insight into the role of ankle-evertor and -invertor muscle activity.

Objective:

To determine if there is a difference in the ratio of evertor to invertor activity between the dominant and nondominant legs and outer-sole conditions when the ankle is forced into inversion.

Design:

Repeated-measures single-group design.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

15 physically active healthy volunteers with no previous history of an ankle sprain or lower extremity surgery or fracture.

Interventions:

An outer sole with fulcrum was used to cause 25° of inversion at the subtalar joint after landing from a 27-cm step-down task. Participants performed 10 fulcrum trials on both the dominant and nondominant leg.

Main Outcome Measures:

The ratio of evertor to invertor muscle activity 200 ms before and 200 ms after the inversion perturbation was measured using electromyography. This ratio was the dependent variable. Independent variables included outer-sole condition (fulcrum, flat), leg (dominant, nondominant), and time (prelanding, postlanding). The data were analyzed with separate 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA, 1 for the prelanding ratios and 1 for the postlanding ratios.

Results:

For the postlanding ratios, the fulcrum outer sole had a significantly greater (P < .05) ratio than the flat outer sole, and the nondominant leg had a significantly greater (P < .05) ratio than the dominant leg.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that a greater evertor response is produced when the ankle is forced into inversion, and a greater response is produced for the nondominant leg, which may function better during a postural-stabilizing task than the dominant leg.

Open access

Effectiveness of Novel Ankle Prophylactic Compared With Lace-Up Brace or Tape

Wyatt D. Ihmels, Kayla D. Seymore, and Tyler N. Brown

. Using ankle bracing and taping to decrease range of motion and velocity during inversion perturbation while walking . J Athl Train . 2016 ; 51 ( 4 ): 283 – 290 . PubMed ID: 27111586 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.5.06 10.4085/1062-6050-51.5.06 27111586 6. Zhang S , Wortley M , Chen Q , Freedman J

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Nonelastic and Kinesio Tex Tapes Improve Perceived Stability But Not Postural Control in Participants With Chronic Ankle Instability

Jason Cline, Abbey Thomas Fenwick, Tricia Turner, Susan Arthur, and Erik A. Wikstrom

and taping to decrease range of motion and velocity during inversion perturbation while walking . J Athl Train . 2016 ; 51 ( 4 ): 283 – 290 . PubMed ID: 27111586 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.5.06 22. Kuni B , Mussler J , Kalkum E , Schmitt H , Wolf SI . Effect of kinesiotaping, non

Open access

The Effect of Kinesio Tape on Factors for Neuromuscular Control of the Lower-Extremity: A Critically Appraised Topic

Nickolai Martonick, Kimber Kober, Abigail Watkins, Amanda DiEnno, Carmen Perez, Ashlie Renfro, Songah Chae, and Russell Baker

.1177/0363546504269591 10.1177/0363546504269591 2. Briem K , Eythörsdöttir H , Magnúsdóttir RG , Pálmarsson R , Rúnarsdöttir T , Sveinsson T . Effects of kinesio tape compared with nonelastic sports tape and the untaped ankle during a sudden inversion perturbation in male athletes . J Orthop Sports Phys

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Chronic Ankle Instability Does Not Influence Tibiofemoral Contact Forces During Drop Landings Using a Musculoskeletal Model

Yumeng Li, He Wang, and Kathy J. Simpson

evaluating ankle braces and ankle inversion perturbation? Clin J Sport Med . 2012 ; 22 : 214 – 220 . PubMed ID: 22382431 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e318248e5f6 22382431 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318248e5f6 27. Kulas AS , Schmitz RJ , Schultz SJ , Watson MA , Perrin DH . Energy absorption as a predictor