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John K. Gotwals

This study investigates the functional nature of perfectionism in sport through a person-oriented comparison of healthy and unhealthy perfectionist athletes’ levels of burnout. A sample of 117 intercollegiate varsity student-athletes (M age = 21.28 years, SD = 2.05) completed measures that assessed multidimensional sport-based perfectionism and athlete burnout indices (i.e., reduced accomplishment, sport devaluation, and emotional/physical exhaustion). Cluster analysis revealed that the sample could be represented by four theoretically meaningful clusters: Parent-Oriented Unhealthy Perfectionists, Doubt-Oriented Unhealthy Perfectionists, Healthy Perfectionists, and Non-Perfectionists. Intercluster comparisons revealed that healthy perfectionists reported (a) lower levels on all athlete burnout indices in comparison with both doubt-oriented unhealthy perfectionists and nonperfectionists and (b) lower levels of emotional/physical exhaustion in comparison with parent-oriented unhealthy perfectionists (all ps < .05). The degree to which findings fit within perfectionism/burnout theory and can serve as an example for research with enhanced relevancy to applied sport psychology contexts is discussed.

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Thomas D. Raedeke, Victoria Blom, and Göran Kenttä

contingent self-worth simultaneously with perfectionism in a person-oriented approach might shed insight on the potentially maladaptive or adaptive nature of this personality disposition. The beliefs characterizing maladaptive types of perfectionism are postulated to include high contingent self-worth and

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Ali Moazami-Goodarzi, Matilda Sorkkila, Kaisa Aunola, and Tatiana V. Ryba

approached by incorporating a person-oriented approach to a variable-oriented approach, making it possible to reveal not only developmental trends in student-athletes’ identity development, but also heterogeneity in the identity profiles, that is, different developmental trajectories. It has been suggested

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Luke F. Olsson, Michael C. Grugan, Joseph N. Martin, and Daniel J. Madigan

-person combinations of PS and PC in athletes (see Hill et al., 2019 ). Subsequently, future research may want to adopt a person-oriented approach to examining the relationships between perfectionism, stress, and athlete burnout (e.g.,  Pacewicz et al., 2018 ). Third, the study examined perfectionism using a single

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Xavier García-Massó, Isaac Estevan, Roberto Izquierdo-Herrera, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, and Luis-Millan Gonzalez

pressure measures of the Wii balance board . Gait & Posture, 39 ( 1 ), 224 – 228 . PubMed ID: 23910725 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.07.010 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.07.010 Bergman , L.R. , & Magnusson , D. ( 1997 ). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology

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J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith

. PubMed ID: 26265342 doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0266 10.1123/jsep.2014-0266 Magnusson , D. ( 1998 ). The logic and implications of a person-oriented approach . In R.B. Cairns , L.R. Bergman , & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual (pp.  33 – 64 ). Thousand Oaks, CA

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Ernest Boakye-Dankwa, Anthony Barnett, Nancy A. Pachana, Gavin Turrell, and Ester Cerin

Economic Forum . Bergman , L.R. , & Magnusson , D. ( 1997 ). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology . Development and Psychopathology, 9 ( 02 ), 291 – 319 . doi:10.1017/S095457949700206X 10.1017/S095457949700206X Best , J.R. , Rosano , C. , Aizenstein , H

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Stephen Shannon, Garry Prentice, and Gavin Breslin

. , & Hill , A.P. ( 2019 ). The BASES expert statement on burnout in sport . The Sport and Exercise Scientist, 61, 6 – 7 . Magnusson , D. ( 1998 ). The logic and implications of a person-oriented approach . In R.B. Cairns , L.R. Bergman , & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for

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Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi, and Mirko Schmidt

competence, probably due to the methodological specifics of the cluster-analytical person-oriented approach ( Bardid, De Meester, et al., 2016 ; De Meester, Maes et al., 2016 ; De Meester, Stodden et al., 2016 ; Weiss & Amorose, 2005 ). While maintaining a person-oriented focus, we adopted a regression