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Julia Allain, Gordon A. Bloom, and Wade D. Gilbert

). Using case studies and stimulated-recall interviews, this line of research—with both youth-sport and high-performance ice hockey coaches—illustrated that when making decisions during competition coaches considered both the contextual information from the game and their personal knowledge of the athletes

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Thomas Davies, Andrew Cruickshank, and Dave Collins

Recent retrospective research has identified effective meso-level thoughts and behaviors for high level golfers (i.e., those deployed between shots and holes). However, how such thoughts and behaviors are actually used during this phase of performance and, or if, they vary in different contexts is unknown. Accordingly, real-time observations followed by stimulated recall interviews were used to examine the meso-level processes used by high-level golfers during competition. Results indicated use of the same pre2- and post-shot routines identified in prior retrospective research but with key differences in the content and application of some of their stages relative to shot outcome. These similarities and differences are discussed along with implications for practitioners: including the importance of developing metacognitive skills, and prioritizing the development of performance expertise over performance competencies for high-level golfers at the meso-level of performance.

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Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Ian David Boardley, Doris Matosic, and Mark William Bruner

-0117 Bruner , M.W. , Boardley , I.D. , Allan , V. , Root , Z. , Buckham , S. , Forrest , C. , & Côté , J. ( 2017 ). Examining social identity and intrateam moral behaviours in competitive youth ice hockey using stimulated recall . Journal of Sports Sciences, 35 ( 20 ), 1963 – 1974 . PubMed ID

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Kacey C. Neely, John G.H. Dunn, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Nicholas L. Holt

deselection to help stimulate recall and enable them to provide detailed examples during the interview. The interview guide was developed based on IPA recommendations by Smith et al. ( 2009 ) and qualitative interviewing guidelines by Rubin and Rubin ( 2012 ). The interview guide included introductory, main

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Fernando Santos, Martin Camiré, and Dany J. MacDonald

) nonparticipant observations pre, during, and post CEC, (b) one-on-one meetings (i.e., between the first author and each coach) during the CEC, and (c) stimulated recall interviews post CEC. The first author conducted all the interviews and oversaw the audio and video recording of training sessions, which enabled the research

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Jordan D. Herbison, Luc J. Martin, Alex J. Benson, Colin D. McLaren, Richard B. Slatcher, Ian D. Boardley, Jordan Sutcliffe, Jean Côté, Justin M. Carré, and Mark W. Bruner

; Sage et al., 2006 ). For instance, group-related constructs such as norms and cohesion have been found to influence the relationship between social identity strength and athlete behavior ( Bruner et al., 2014, 2018 ). Furthermore, through interviews involving stimulated recall, researchers found that

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Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Deborah. S. Baxter, and Leah K. May

exclusively, worked within the interpretive paradigm. They have studied relatively small samples of participants intensely and collected data with a number of qualitative techniques, the most prominent of which have been observations, formal interviews of teachers and students, stimulated recall and informal

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

.87%) 3 15 13 13  Document analysis 26 (9.59%) 0 12 8 6  Questionnaires/surveys 48 (17.71%) 6 12 16 14  Interviews   informal interviews 32 (25.81%) b 1 15 9 7   stimulated recall 7 (5.65%) b 0 2 5 0   formal interviews 28 (22.58%) b 1 15 8 4   semistructured interviews 33 (26.61%) b 1 7 14 11   group