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Wendy Yajun Huang, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum and Gang He

Background:

Hong Kong’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth is the first evidence-based synthesis of various indicators related to individual behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels, settings and sources of influence, and strategies and investments in Hong Kong.

Methods:

Following a standardized protocol, currently best available data for Hong Kong youth were collated and evaluated by an expert consensus panel on 9 indicators (5 activity behaviors and 4 influences on these behaviors).

Results:

Less than half of the children and youth met the recommended PA level. As a result, a D grade was given for Overall PA levels. Organized Sport Participation and Active Transportation received grades of C- and B, respectively. Sedentary Behaviors and School scored a C grade. Community and the Built Environment scored a grade of B. Family Influence received as low a score as Overall PA (D). Active Play and Government were not graded due to incomplete data.

Conclusions:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high for children and youth in Hong Kong. Promising policies exist in schools and features of community and the built environment are favorable. Increasing family support should be emphasized for future PA promotion.

Open access

Silvia A. González, Maria A Castiblanco, Luis F. Arias-Gómez, Andrea Martinez-Ospina, Daniel D. Cohen, Gustavo A. Holguin, Adriana Almanza, Diana Marina Camargo Lemos, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Iván D. Escobar, Johnattan García, Rocio Gámez, Mauricio Garzon, Yaneth Herazo Beltrán, Hernan Hurtado, Oscar Lozano, Diana C. Páez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Nubia Ruiz, Gustavo Tovar and Olga L. Sarmiento

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is vital to the holistic development of young people. Regular participation in PA is associated with substantial benefits for health, cognitive function, and social inclusion. Recognizing the potential of PA in the context of the current peace process in Colombia, the purpose of this article is to present the methodology and results of Colombia’s second Report Card on PA for children and youth.

Methods:

A group of experts on PA graded 14 PA indicators based on data from national surveys and policy documents.

Results:

National and departmental policy indicators received a grade of B, while organized sport participation, overweight, obesity, community influence, and nongovernment initiatives indicators received a grade of C. Overall PA levels, active transportation, sedentary behaviors, and school influence received a grade of D. Active play, low physical fitness, and family influence received an Incomplete grade.

Conclusions:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth, with notable geographic differences. A broad policy framework translated into specific actions could provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice, and contribute to social integration goals in a postconflict setting.

Full access

Catherine Draper, Susan Basset, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V. Lambert and the HAKSA Writing Group

Background:

There is current concern for the health and well-being of children and youth in South Africa, including habits of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior. The 2014 Healthy Active Kids South Africa Report Card evaluates the current activity status of children and youth.

Methods:

The Research Working Group was comprised of 23 experts in physical education, nutrition, sport science, public health and journalism. The search was based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature (previous 5 years), dissertations, and nonpeer-reviewed reports (‘gray’ literature) dealing with the PA and nutritional status of South African children and youth 6−18 years of age. Key indicators were identified and data extracted. Grades for each indicator were discussed and assigned.

Results:

Overall PA levels received a D grade, as roughly 50% or more of children and youth were not meeting recommended levels. Organized sports participation fared better with a C, and government policies were promising, receiving a B. Screen time and sedentary behavior were a major concern and received a grade of F. Under- and over-weight were highlighted, but overweight is on the rise and this indicator was assigned a D grade. Most of the other indicators in South Africa remained the same or became worse so that grades declined from C- to D. In particular, sedentary behavior, soft-drink and fast food consumption, and an ineffectual regulatory environment to control advertising to children were a concern. There is need to engage parents and communities for advocacy and social mobilization.

Full access

Barbara Sternfeld and Lisa Goldman-Rosas

Context:

Numerous instruments to measure self-reported physical activity (PA) exist, but there is little guidance for determining the most appropriate choice.

Objective:

To provide a systematic framework for researchers and practitioners to select a self-reported PA instrument.

Process:

The framework consists of 2 components: a series of questions and a database of instruments. The questions encourage users to think critically about their specific needs and to appreciate the strengths and limitations of the available options. Instruments for the database were identified through existing literature and expert opinion.

Findings:

Ten questions, ranging from study aim and study design to target population and logistical consideration, guide the researcher or practitioner in defining the criteria for an appropriate PA instruments for a given situation. No one question on its own determines the optimal choice, but taken together, they narrow the potential field. The database currently includes 38 different self-reported PA instruments, characterized by 18 different parameters.

Conclusions:

The series of questions presented here, in conjunction with a searchable database of self-report PA instruments, provides a needed step toward the development of guiding principles and good practices for researchers and practitioners to follow in making an informed selection of a self-reported PA instrument.

Open access

Areekul Amornsriwatanakul, Kasem Nakornkhet, Piyawat Katewongsa, Chairat Choosakul, Tippawan Kaewmanee, Kurusart Konharn, Atchara Purakom, Anoma Santiworakul, Patraporn Sitilertpisan, Sonthaya Sriramatr, Araya Yankai, Michael Rosenberg and Fiona C. Bull

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is recognized as one of the core modifiable risk factors of noncommunicable diseases. However, little is known about PA in the Thai population, particularly in children. The report card (RC) project provided Thailand with an opportunity to assess PA behaviors in children. This paper summarizes the methodology, grading process, and the final grades of the Thai RC.

Methods:

A school-based survey was conducted to collect data from a nationally representative sample of children aged 6 to 17 years. Survey results provided the primary source for the RC. Nine indicators were graded using the Global Matrix 2.0 framework. Grading was undertaken by a national committee comprising experts from key stakeholders.

Results:

Grades ranged from F to B. Overall PA and Sedentary Behaviors both received the grade D-. Organized Sport Participation scored a C. Active Play scored the grade F. Active Transport and support from Family and Peers were both graded B. School, Community, and Government indicators were scored C.

Conclusions:

In Thai children, participation in PA and active play is very low; conversely, sedentary behaviors are high. These first data on patterns of activity for the Thailand RC will serve to guide national actions and advocacy aimed at increasing PA in children.

Open access

Ade F. Adeniyi, Olukemi O. Odukoya, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Edirin Metseagharun and Kingsley K. Akinroye

Background:

The Nigerian Report card on Physical Activity (PA) in Children and Youth was first developed in 2013 to inform practice and policy on healthy living and prevention of noncommunicable diseases among Nigerian children and youth. This article summarizes the results of the 2016 report card and provides updated evidence on the current situation in Nigeria.

Methods:

A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by the Report Card Working Group. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators based on the criteria used for the 2013 edition.

Results:

Grades assigned to the indicators were Overall PA, D; Active Play and Leisure, C; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors (screen-based, F and nonscreen-based, D); Overweight and Obesity, A; PA in Schools, C-; Government/Nongovernment Organizations/Private Sector/Policy, B. The following indicators were graded as Incomplete: Organized Sport and PA, Community and Built Environment, and Family and Peers.

Conclusions:

The overall PA levels of Nigerian children and youth seemed to be declining compared with the 2013 Report card but with slight improvement in active play and leisure, and PA in school settings. A substantial number of Nigerian children and youth still have high sedentary behaviors, overweight and obesity. Efforts are needed to promote PA among them.

Open access

Anja Groβek, Christiana van Loo, Gregory E. Peoples, Markus Hagenbuchner, Rachel Jones and Dylan P. Cliff

Background:

This study reports energy expenditure (EE) data for lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children.

Methods:

Eleven children aged 3 to 6 years (mean age = 4.8 ± 0.9; 55% boys) completed 12 semistructured activities including sedentary behaviors (SB), light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) over 2 laboratory visits while wearing a portable metabolic system to measure EE.

Results:

Mean EE values for SB (TV, reading, tablet and toy play) were between 0.9 to 1.1 kcal/min. Standing art had an energy cost that was 1.5 times that of SB (mean = 1.4 kcal/min), whereas bike riding (mean = 2.5 kcal/min) was similar to LPA (cleaning-up, treasure hunt and walking) (mean = 2.3 to 2.5 kcal/min), which had EE that were 2.5 times SB. EE for MVPA (running, active games and obstacle course) was 4.2 times SB (mean = 3.8 to 3.9 kcal/min).

Conclusion:

EE values reported in this study can contribute to the limited available data on the energy cost of lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children.

Open access

Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jorge Marin, Mairena Sánchez-López, Susana Aznar, Rosaura Leis, Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Helmut Schroder, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, German Vicente, Marcela González-Gross and Lluís Serra-Majem

Background:

The first Active Healthy Kids Spanish Report Card aims to gather the most robust information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior of children and adolescents.

Methods:

A Research Working Group of experts on PA and sport sciences was convened. A comprehensive data search, based on a review of the literature, dissertations, gray literature, and experts’ nonpublished data, was conducted to identify the best sources to grade each indicator following the procedures and methodology outlined by the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card model.

Results:

Overall PA (based on objective and self-reported methods) was graded as D-, Organized Sports Participation as B, Active Play as C+, Active Transportation as C, Sedentary Behavior as D, School as C, and Family and Peers as Incomplete, Community and the Built Environment as Incomplete, and Government as Incomplete.

Conclusions:

Spanish children and adolescents showed low levels of adherence to PA and sedentary behavior guidelines, especially females and adolescents. There is a need to achieve consensus and harmonize methods to evaluate PA and sedentary behavior to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to promote PA.

Open access

Marilia Silva Paulo, Javaid Nauman, Abdishakur Abdulle, Abdulla Aljunaibi, Mouza Alzaabi, Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Syed Mahboob Shah, Susan Yousufzai and Tom Loney

to a modern urbanised, indoor, and technology-driven lifestyle. 1 Limited national surveillance from the last 10 years shows that only ∼20% of UAE children accumulate the recommended amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity 2 (MVPA; ≥60 minutes per day). 3 , 4 Both Emirati and

Open access

Yolanda Demetriou, Antje Hebestreit, Anne K. Reimers, Annegret Schlund, Claudia Niessner, Steffen Schmidt, Jonas David Finger, Michael Mutz, Klaus Völker, Lutz Vogt, Alexander Woll and Jens Bucksch

Introduction Even though positive health effects of regular physical activity (PA) are well known, 1 , 2 national and international surveillance data show that PA is the “pill not taken”. This leads to widespread negative health and economic consequences. The 2018 German Report Card on Physical