are presented in Table 1 . There was a range of ages represented but limited diversity in race/ethnicity and gender. A majority of the respondents were female, were educated beyond a high school level, and did not have a child of adolescent age. Table 1 Demographic Characteristics Summary (N = 2050
Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul, and Elizabeth Y. Barnett
Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Christine Frisard, Milagros C. Rosal, and Stephenie C. Lemon
mixed use to enhance the diversity and proximity of destinations near public transit. 7 Individuals using public transit often walk or bike to transit stops, and expanding services, locations, and connections can improve access and opportunities for PA. 5 , 8 Traffic safety and injury prevention
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura, and Mark S. Tremblay
, Active Play, and Active Transportation were graded “C+,” “D,” and “C,” respectively. The absence of a relationship between Overall Physical Activity and other behavioral indicators can potentially be explained by the aforementioned differences in methods used to measure these indicators and the diversity
Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer, and Trent Stellingwerff
individual athlete’s requirements ( Burke et al., 2018 ). Therefore, given the diversity in training and bioenergetics across the 25 different events that comprise the field events, a multitude of ergogenic aids might be considered. An in-depth discussion is beyond the scope of this study, so the interested
Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio, and Laura E. Middleton
participants to share freely in an open and comfortable environment. Although some recommend a focus group size between six and 12 participants to promote diversity but maintain cohesion ( Krueger, 2000 ; Onwuegbuzie, Dickinson, Leech, & Zoran, 2009 ), participants with MCI or early dementia may be more
Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky, and Martin D. Hoffman
support for shorter running events and ultramarathon training, caution is warranted in using these guidelines for ultramarathon competition due to the large diversity of participant demographics and event characteristics. It is clear that individual assessment to determine daily and event nutrition and
Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew
); psychosocial sources such as self-efficacy ( McAuley, Szabo, Gothe, & Olson, 2011 ); and motivation ( McNeill et al., 2006 ). Finally, there is a lack of diversity within the sample, which was majority white, educated, and female. Social support varies in form as a function of culture ( Kim, Sherman, & Taylor
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura, and Mark S. Tremblay
children at the country and community level, in different contexts and settings. Integrated Discussion Overall, the average grades obtained for each indicator were low, and a small variation was observed within the 10 indicators (“D” to “C”). More diversity was observed between the 3 HDI groupings, between
Lesley Steinman, Mark Doescher, David Levinger, Cynthia Perry, Louise Carter, Amy Eyler, Semra Aytur, Angie L.I. Cradock, Kelly R. Evenson, Katie Heinrich, Jacqueline Kerr, Jill Litt, Yucel Severcan, and Carolyn Voorhees
Recent research demonstrates the importance of targeting the built environment to support individual physical activity, particularly for people experiencing health disparities. Master plans to promote biking and/or pedestrians (BPMPs) are a potential method for environmental change. This descriptive study aims to provide a snapshot of plan attributes and better understand demographic, social and transportation characteristics of communities with BPMPs.
We collected a census sample of BPMPs from 4 states. Population and commuting data were obtained from national statistics.
294 master plans were included, with most plans representing municipalities. 62% of plans targeted biking only, one-fifth targeted biking and walking, and 15% targeted walking only. The sampled locations have a similar demographic profile as the overall U.S. for median age and household income, people of color, high school education, and income inequality. The degree of racial diversity of sampled communities is slightly less than the U.S. average and the percentage of people who walk to work were slightly higher.
Given that communities with master plans have a similar profile as the overall U.S., BPMPs could feasibly be spread to communities throughout the country. Further research is planned to describe BPMPs in detail toward informing future plan development.
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright
The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs for children/youth with physical disabilities. A search of the published literature was conducted and augmented by international expertise. A quality appraisal was conducted; only studies with quality ratings ≥60% informed our best practice recommendations. Seventeen studies were included using qualitative (n = 9), quantitative (n = 5), or mixed (n = 3) designs. Programs had a diversity of age groups, group sizes, and durations. Most programs were recreational level, involving both genders. Rehabilitation staff were the most common leaders. Outcomes focused on social skills/relationships, physical skill development, and psychological well-being, with overall positive effects shown in these areas. The best practice recommendations are consistent with an abilities-based approach emphasizing common group goals and interests; cooperative activities; mastery-oriented, individualized instruction; and developmentally appropriate, challenging activities. Results indicate that inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs are important for positive psychosocial and physical skill development of children/youth with physical disabilities.