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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero, and Louise M. Burke

), metabolic and reproductive hormonal function, BMD (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), injury and illness rates, and body composition of identified endurance athletes during sea level precompetition training in FIN during spring 2015 (5% Olympians) and during a precompetition altitude training camp in

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medications. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan showed low bone density with L1-4 Z-score -1.8. Serum calcium and Vitamin D were within normal limits. She was treated for her fractures and returned to activity. Discussion regarding her endocrine management plan was put on hold when she left for a 6 month

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

and weight (Seca, Hamburg, Germany) wearing shorts, and they underwent a measure of whole-body composition, hip bone density, and lumbar spine bone density using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Hologic, Manchester, UK) for classification of Z -scores, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson, and Katharine E. Reed

were assessment of maximal muscular strength (upper body or lower body) and assessments of LBM. Strength was measured as one-repetition maximum (in kilograms) in all studies that assessed changes in muscle strength. LBM was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in four studies ( Candow et

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Petter Fagerberg

amount of exercise (predefined and controlled amount of exercise and self-reports); objective measurements of body composition and FFM (e.g., dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA] hydrostatic weighing, magnetic resonance imaging, skinfolds, or four-compartment model); and outcomes showing effects on

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affiliated with the Mexican Olympic Committee were recruited. A convenience sample of 10 male athletes (mean age = 24 ± 4 y) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by anthropometry (ANT), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Energy consumption

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai, and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

 al., 2009 ). Bone Health Assessment Bone Mineral Density Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning (EXA-3000; OsteoSys, Seoul, South Korea) was used to measure the BMD of the forearms (cortical bone) and calcaneus (trabecular bone) at both sides, as previously described by our research group ( O

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

within athlete-monitoring programs by FINA, as well as national sport governing bodies Note . RED-S = relative energy deficiency in sport; CHO = carbohydrate; EA = energy availability; LEA = low energy availability; PHE = periodic health examination; DEXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DE

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton, and Adam S. Tenforde

energy availability; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; RED-S = Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport; RMR = resting metabolic rate; EA = energy availability. RED-S in Male Road Cyclists Road cyclists may have LEA resulting from the sustained high energy expenditure combined with the challenges of

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz, and Anna K. Melin

; BMD = bone mineral density; DE = disordered eating behavior; DLW = double labeled water technique; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, EA = energy availability; EAT-26 = eating attitudes test-26; EB = energy balance; EDI = eating disorder inventory; EDE = eating disorder examination; EDE