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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero, and Louise M. Burke

), metabolic and reproductive hormonal function, BMD (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), injury and illness rates, and body composition of identified endurance athletes during sea level precompetition training in FIN during spring 2015 (5% Olympians) and during a precompetition altitude training camp in

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

and weight (Seca, Hamburg, Germany) wearing shorts, and they underwent a measure of whole-body composition, hip bone density, and lumbar spine bone density using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Hologic, Manchester, UK) for classification of Z -scores, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity

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Petter Fagerberg

amount of exercise (predefined and controlled amount of exercise and self-reports); objective measurements of body composition and FFM (e.g., dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA] hydrostatic weighing, magnetic resonance imaging, skinfolds, or four-compartment model); and outcomes showing effects on

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by a newly developed sport-specific questionnaire and clinical interview (SEAQ-I), received dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition scans and blood tests for endocrine markers. Low EA as assessed using the SEAQ-I, was observed in 28% of cyclists. Low

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medications. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan showed low bone density with L1-4 Z-score -1.8. Serum calcium and Vitamin D were within normal limits. She was treated for her fractures and returned to activity. Discussion regarding her endocrine management plan was put on hold when she left for a 6 month

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affiliated with the Mexican Olympic Committee were recruited. A convenience sample of 10 male athletes (mean age = 24 ± 4 y) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by anthropometry (ANT), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Energy consumption

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai, and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

 al., 2009 ). Bone Health Assessment Bone Mineral Density Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning (EXA-3000; OsteoSys, Seoul, South Korea) was used to measure the BMD of the forearms (cortical bone) and calcaneus (trabecular bone) at both sides, as previously described by our research group ( O

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strain strength index at the tibial shaft by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We estimated the intervention effect on lower body bone health parameters by multiple linear regression models

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson, and Katharine E. Reed

were assessment of maximal muscular strength (upper body or lower body) and assessments of LBM. Strength was measured as one-repetition maximum (in kilograms) in all studies that assessed changes in muscle strength. LBM was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in four studies ( Candow et

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

, however, peak V ˙ O 2 should at least be scaled to FFM. It has been reported that peak V ˙ O 2 is more strongly correlated with FFM, estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, than with body mass ( 21 ) and that the peak V ˙ O 2 of overweight youth is similar to that of lean youth when