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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

-doping regulations. Last but not least, more human-based research is needed, ideally in elite athlete populations, on the possible benefits of some macro- and micronutrients in the prevention or boosted recovery of injured athletes. Given that placebo-controlled, randomized control trials are exceptionally difficult

Open access

E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

children: a randomized controlled trial with 4-year-olds in preschools . Am J Prev Med . 2016 ; 51 ( 1 ): 12 – 22 . PubMed ID: 26803357 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.12.003 26803357 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.12.003 39. Määttä S , Ray C , Roos G , Roos E . Applying a socioecological model to

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James A. Ashton-Miller and Ronald F. Zernicke

clinical pathways for primary hip and knee joint replacement patients: a pragmatic randomized, controlled trial . Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2012 ; 20 ( 10 ): 1086 – 1094 . 22796513 10.1016/j.joca.2012.06.017

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

immobilization in healthy, young males: A randomized controlled trial . Sports Medicine, 47 ( 8 ), 1661 – 1671 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0670-2 10.1007/s40279-016-0670-2 Barrett , E.C. , McBurney , M.I. , & Ciappio , E.D. ( 2014 ). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a potential therapeutic

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Carl Foster

scientific understanding of training is grounded on the 8- to 20-week randomized controlled trial, which is so much shorter than the yearly or often quadrennial-based training plans of coaches that the scientists do not really have an appreciation of the effects of long-term periodization and thus cannot

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

unclear procedures for randomization and blinding were commonplace ( Hao et al., 2015 ; Singh & Das, 2013 ). Clearly, there is a pressing need for randomized controlled trials in high-level athletes with sufficient participant numbers, rigorous controls and procedures, appropriate supplementation

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

irritable bowel syndrome and a probiotic restores bifidobacterium species: A randomized controlled trial . Gastroenterology, 153 ( 4 ), 936 – 947 . PubMed ID: 28625832 doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.010 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.010 Stockman , M.C. , Thomas , D. , Burke , J. , & Apovian , C

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Keith Baar

pilot randomized controlled trial . Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 19 ( 4 ), 399 – 405 . PubMed ID: 21251991 doi:10.1016/j.joca.2011.01.001 10.1016/j.joca.2011.01.001 Oesser , S. , Adam , M. , Babel , W. , & Seifert , J. ( 1999 ). Oral administration of 14 C labeled gelatin hydrolysate

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Michael Wälchli, Jan Ruffieux,, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller and Wolfgang Taube

.1055/s-0033-1337949 23700328 9. Donath L , Roth R , Zahner L , Faude O . Slackline training and neuromuscular performance in seniors: a randomized controlled trial . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2016 ; 26 ( 3 ): 275 – 83 . PubMed doi:10.1111/sms.12423 25756231 10.1111/sms.12423 10. Gouleme N

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Mette Rørth, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Prue Cormie, John L. Oliffe and Julie Midtgaard

RCT and calculated by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. ADT = androgen deprivation therapy; MET = metabolic equivalent; RCT = randomized controlled trial. a Study participants were asked about their football experience during their life course as part of a baseline