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Øyvind Skattebo and Thomas Losnegard

proportion of targets hit. The majority of between-athletes variabilities showed trivial sex differences. However, skiing time differed for top-10 athletes (small; women > men). Between-events CVs were very large for both the skiing (∼5–6%) and total race time (∼4–5%), trivial for the shooting times (∼4

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Karin Lobenius-Palmér, Birgitta Sjöqvist, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

group, which has been noted in individuals with ID elsewhere ( Phillips & Holland, 2011 ). Higher pedometer scores for males with ID have also been reported ( Suzuki et al., 1991 ). Not reported previously, males with HI were less sedentary than females with HI. The only group in which no sex difference

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Giuseppe delli Paoli, Denise van de Laarschot, Edith C.H. Friesema, Remco Verkaik, Antonia Giacco, Rosalba Senese, Pascal P. Arp, P. Mila Jhamai, Stefano M. Pagnotta, Linda Broer, André G. Uitterlinden, Antonia Lanni, M. Carola Zillikens and Pieter de Lange

. 10.1002/oby.20353 Bi , X. , Loo , Y.T. , & Henry , C.J. ( 2018 ). Android fat as a determinant of metabolic syndrome: Sex differences . Nutrition, 57, 127 – 132 . PubMed ID: 30172994 doi:10.1016/j.nut.2018.05.016. 10.1016/j.nut.2018.05.016 Bocco , B.M. , Louzada , R.A. , Silvestre

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

endocrine pathways and to identify sex differences to better inform future research and treatment of RED-S. We have summarized the key findings in Table  1 . Table 1 Summary of Endocrine Changes Using Direct or Surrogate Measures of Low EA Hormone Females Males HPG axis  FSH ↔ Gordon et al. ( 2017

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

. Wisløff U , Helgerud J . Methods for evaluating peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold in upper body of cross-country skiers . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1998 ; 30 : 963 – 970 . PubMed ID: 9624659 9624659 10.1249/00005768-199806000-00029 26. Helgerud J , Ingjer F , Strømme SB . Sex

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

et al., 2017 ), comparing 5 days of EA of 189 kJ (45 kcal) and 63 kJ (15 kcal)·kg LBM −1 ·day −1 reported decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption in active women, but not in men. How much the variation in findings between studies reflect true sex differences or differences in their