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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

statement summarizes these issues and the nutrition and hydration strategies with which they can be addressed. Physiological Effects of Exertional Heat Stress Thermoregulation During exercise, high body temperatures arise from excess heat storage due to sustained imbalance between internal heat production

Open access

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

published since the previous consensus, and reference is made to other articles published in this series to reduce redundancy. Determinants of Sprint Performance Sprint performance is determined primarily by reaction time, acceleration, maximum running velocity, and the ability to sustain this in the

Open access

Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

are superior to omnivorous diets for improving athletic training, health, or performance. Fasting Diets Fasting is characterized by the absence of energy intake for sustained period of time ranging from several hours to days ( Maughan et al., 2010 ). It is not a new concept, but an age-old practice

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

. Table 3 Performance Supplements That May Achieve a Marginal Performance Gain in Track-and-Field Events as Part of a Bespoke and Periodized Training and Nutrition Plan Event Caffeine Creatine Nitrate β-Alanine Bicarbonate Sprints: 100 m, 100-m hurdles, 110-m hurdles, and 200 m ✓ ✓ Sustained sprints: 400

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

such as Rhodiola rosea and sage might also improve cognitive performance and reaction time. Rhodiola rosea is reported to influence endurance performance ( De Bock et al., 2004 ), but in this study there was no specific influence on sustained attention or reaction time. Noreen et al. ( 2013 ) examined

Open access

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of oxygen that the body is able to utilize for aerobic energy metabolism within the muscles. b Economy of movement: that is, the proportion of VO 2 max that the athlete is able to sustain for prolonged periods. The mismatch between energy intake and exercise energy expenditure that causes LEA in

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

these variables across distance/time); and associated muscle functional responses (e.g., maximal aerobic speed and sustainable fraction, knee extensor force, and/or peak power output) appear to be strong predictors of performance outcomes in single-stage mountain trail ultramarathons ( Balducci et

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

promoting fat mass loss and enhancing LBM retention and can even result in gains in LBM during severe caloric deficits. Future studies with less severe caloric deficits, that would be sustainable over longer periods of time, are warranted to examine the longer-term effects of higher protein intakes on high

Open access

Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

determine food timing and volumes, while taking steps to maximize gastrointestinal comfort and ensure sustained energy levels and recovery between events. High-energy easily digestible snacks (cereal bars, bananas, sports drinks, and energy gels) may be appropriate throughout competition, with the midday

Open access

Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

may result in undesirable relative energy deficiency in sport outcomes. Therefore, it is not sustainable from a health perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. The limited published body composition ranges suggest elite female