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Trent Stellingwerff

Although the concept of training periodization has been developing over the last 70 years, the concept of nutrition and body composition periodization synched with training and competition demands is just emerging ( Jeukendrup, 2017 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2007 , 2011 ). However, beyond these

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

cellular consequences (for reviews, see Bartlett et al., 2015 ; Hawley et al., 2018 ; Impey et al., 2018 ). However, the term has also been used to describe a chronic training period in which such strategies were undertaken in differing combinations over many days to weeks ( Hansen et al., 2005 ; Yeo

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Maja Zamoscinska, Irene R. Faber and Dirk Büsch

training 36 mo of low-volume high-resistance strength training and high-impact aerobics; IG: 2× group training (60–70 min) and 2× home training sessions (25 min) a week. Group training session: warm-up/endurance, jumping, strength training (periodized), and flexibility training sequences. Home training

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Amanda L. Ager, Dorien Borms, Magali Bernaert, Vicky Brusselle, Mazarine Claessens, Jean-Sébastien Roy and Ann Cools

-replication test (AJPS): ANT 60°, 90°, 120° ABD 60°, 90°, 120° IR ER (Zebris CMS-HS 3-dimensional motion measuring system, Zebris Medical GmbH, Allgäu Germany) 12 wk (after training period) Active–active angle-replication test (AJPS): ANT 60°, 90°, 120° ABD 60°, 90°, 120° IR ER No change in proprioceptive ability

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

and anaerobic ATP production, there are numerous opportunities for various nutrition interventions to make a significant training and/or race performance impact. Indeed, as an event group, middle-distance athletes might feature the greatest polarization and diversity of training periodization between

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

 al., 2016 ). However, these results could be influenced by the more favorable feeding period around the training period for the TRF group. Ramadan IF Ramadan is a holy month during which Muslims refrain from eating and drinking between sunrise and sunset for 30 days. It is the most widely studied form of

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

.L. ( 2014 ). Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine . Sports Medicine, 44 ( Suppl. 2 ), 175 – 184 . doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8 10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8 Stellingwerff , T. ( 2012 ). Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners

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randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

need to be prevented or managed. With this in mind, the aims of the current review are to: (a) explore the physiological and nutritional demands of ultramarathon running, (b) provide general guidance on nutritional requirements for training periodization respective to ultramarathon running, and (c

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

production and storage of products is also of concern. Although this may seem a minor inconvenience, and of similarity to food safety issues, the coincidence of problems around a crucial training period or competitive event may significantly interfere with an athlete’s performance goals. It should be noted