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Keith Baar

of the early success, the athlete maintained approximately this level of compliance in the off-season. Body Composition Assessment The player underwent body composition assessment via surface anthropometry using the sum of seven skinfolds at regular intervals throughout the program. Strength

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endurance exercise performance (∼10-km time-trial) were assessed on a cycle ergometer. Muscular endurance (total workload achieved during 30 reciprocal isokinetic contractions) was assessed by isokinetic dynamometry and body composition by DXA. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and during the

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Sid Mitchell, E. Michael Loovis and Stephen A. Butterfield

techniques such as Bod Pod, which is an air displacement plethysmograph that uses whole-body densitometry to determine body composition (fat and fat-free mass), collecting and analyzing this data is simpler. Likewise, changes in heart and lung capacity can also be included as level-2 variables. Adolescence

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

shorter sprints (i.e., 100-, 200-m races). Physique and Body Composition Periodization Despite a long history of sprinting in the Olympic Games, relatively few studies describe the physique of elite sprinters. What is known is that successful sprinters have unique physical traits that predispose them to

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

specific and direct performance benefit in competition (d) To gain a performance improvement indirectly accrued from outcomes such as allowing more effective training (i.e., higher intensity, greater volume), better recovery from training sessions, optimizing mass and body composition, or reducing risks of

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Samantha L. Winter, Sarah M. Forrest, Joanne Wallace and John H. Challis

:10.1115/1.1590359 10.1115/1.1590359 12968576 6. Scafoglieri A , Provyn S , Wallace J , et al . Whole body composition by Hologic QDR 4500/A DXA: system reliability versus user accuracy and precision . In: Ivanov PO , ed. Applications and Experiences of Quality Control . Rijeka, Croatia

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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

-Jones K , Haszard J , Moir C , et al . Physical activity and inactivity trajectories associated with body composition in pre-schoolers . Int J Obes . 2018 ; 42 : 1621 – 1630 . doi:10.1038/s41366-018-0058-5 12. Butte NF , Puyau MR , Wilson TA , et al . Role of physical activity and

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Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

, Ihalainen JK , Hackney AC , et al . Hormonal contraceptive use does not affect strength, endurance, or body composition adaptations to combined strength and endurance training in women [published online ahead of print June 20, 2018]. J Strength Cond Res . PubMed ID: 29927884 doi:10.1519/JSC

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

– 381 . PubMed ID: 17684208 doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.2.373 10.1093/ajcn/86.2.373 Haub , M.D. , Wells , A.M. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Campbell , W.W. ( 2002 ). Effect of protein source on resistive-training-induced changes in body composition and muscle size in older men . The American Journal of

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Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic and Laura Basterfield

Physical fitness can be defined as a set of characteristics related to health and performance, including aerobic fitness, muscular endurance, strength and power, body composition, flexibility, balance, agility, and reaction time ( 7 , 22 ). In children and adolescents, the characteristics directly