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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

disinterest in physical activity begins early in life and there are no pharmacological treatments for physical inactivity ( 141 , 165 ). School care and health care should focus on the identification and treatment of youth with muscle weakness and should recognize muscle strength as a biomarker of health. At

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

the characteristics of childhood physical activity in each country, as determined and explained by a diverse group of experts within each country. In addition, despite the presented methodological issues, this study allows the identification of major trends concerning the characteristics of the

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Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew

the attitude–behavior relationship: A role for group identification . Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 ( 8 ), 776 – 793 . doi:10.1177/0146167296228002 10.1177/0146167296228002 Thoits , P.A. ( 1986 ). Social support as coping assistance . Journal of Consulting and Clinical

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

trial . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 119, 2105 – 2118 . doi:10.1007/s00421-019-04199-2 10.1007/s00421-019-04199-2 McKemy , D.D. , Neuhausser , W.M. , & Julius , D. ( 2002 ). Identification of a cold receptor reveals a general role for TRP channels in thermosensation . Nature

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Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

to outcome assessors during T0, T1, and T2 assessments. Furthermore, only core members of the research team had access to participants’ unique study identification codes, names, and group assignments. Intervention Group (INT) After T0 assessments, participants randomized to INT received a 12-week

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

the intervention (as reported in Table  3 ). Direct quotes presented contain participant identification numbers and a “C” when mentioned by a carer or a “P” if was mentioned by a person living with dementia. An “O” indicates this was heard during an observation or observed and described by the

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athletes’ knowledge of carbohydrate for competition in less than 10 and 5 minutes for athletes and practitioners, respectively, allowing for quick and accurate identification and implementation of strategies to optimise nutrition for performance. No Differences in Cardiorespiratory Fitness or Fat Oxidation

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Eboneé N. Butler, Anita M.H. Ambs, Jill Reedy and Heather R. Bowles


Examining relationships between features of the built environment and physical activity is achievable with geographic information systems technology (GIS). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to identify GIS measures that can be considered for inclusion in national public health surveillance efforts. In the absence of a universally agreed upon framework that integrates physical, social, and cultural aspects of the environment, we used a multidimensional model of access to synthesize the literature.


We identified 29 studies published between 2005 and 2009 with physical activity outcomes that included 1 or more built environment variables measured using GIS. We sorted built environment measures into 5 dimensions of access: accessibility, availability, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability.


Geospatial land-use data, street network data, environmental audits, and commercial databases can be used to measure the availability, accessibility, and accommodation dimensions of access. Affordability and acceptability measures rely on census and self-report data.


GIS measures have been included in studies investigating the built environment and physical activity, although few have examined more than 1 construct of access. Systematic identification and collection of relevant GIS measures can facilitate collaboration and accelerate the advancement of research on the built environment and physical activity.

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Philippa M. Dall, Dawn A. Skelton, Manon L. Dontje, Elaine H. Coulter, Sally Stewart, Simon R. Cox, Richard J. Shaw, Iva Čukić, Claire F. Fitzsimons, Carolyn A. Greig, Malcolm H. Granat, Geoff Der, Ian J. Deary, Sebastien F.M. Chastin and On behalf of the Seniors USP Team

(on a secure cloud server) allowing easy review by all staff •  Data recorded to increase compliance and allow identification of systematic errors/deviation from protocol and monitor malfunction •  Member of staff with experience of data collection using the monitor assigned to triage technical issues

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Susan Carter

difficult to identify energy deficiency in the recreational population because there is little or no regulating entity. Recognition and identification is key, and I feel like we have made progress in this regard. However, we are still lacking access and consistency to the treatments offered. In the mid