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Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

Physical activity has been described as a wonder drug—a low-cost, accessible solution with the ability to impact many chronic health conditions and health outcomes. Regular physical activity influences all-cause mortality, brain health, risk of falls, bone health, weight status, and conditions such

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Alison Griffin, Tim Roselli and Susan L. Clemens

It is widely accepted that achieving sufficient levels of physical activity (PA) is important for good health and that insufficient PA contributes significantly to the overall burden of disease and healthcare costs. The World Health Organization Global Action Plan on PA states that “. . . regular

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Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt and Jay L. Alberts

interventions are relatively insensitive in alleviating these symptoms. 10 Thus, a fundamental gap exists in the effective treatment and prevention of falls in patients with PD. In addition to injury, falling reduces engagement in physical activity behavior in individuals with PD. 11 An overall reduction in

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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

Physical activity in early childhood is a critical aspect of healthy development. 1 Evidence has shown that physical activity levels and sedentary behaviors track throughout childhood 2 ; therefore, integrating appropriate physical activity habits at an early age may promote and sustain future

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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

school attendance, that may aggravate the symptoms. 1 Physical rest recommendations consist of refraining from physical activity until the postconcussive symptoms have subsided, followed by progressive restoration of physical activity as long as the athlete is asymptomatic. 1 , 2 Despite the widespread

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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

Engagement in physical activity is known to have cognitive benefits across the lifespan ( Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008 ). Among older adults, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has been shown to have protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

Physical inactivity, defined as engaging in insufficient levels of physical activity and not meeting the current physical activity recommendations, 1 has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor of premature mortality in adulthood. 2 In contrast, accumulating sufficient moderate- to

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

A compelling body of empirical work shows moderate to high levels of physical activity to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among adults. 1 Conversely, physical inactivity has been recognized by some as “the biggest public health problem of the 21st

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Megan L. Forse, Evan Turner, Silvia A. González, Jakub Kalinowski, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Eun-Young Lee, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Natasha Schranz, Leigh M. Vanderloo and Mark S. Tremblay

global prevalence of physical inactivity (ie, not meeting physical activity guidelines) was estimated to be 27.5% for adults (≥18-y-olds) 5 and 81% for youth (11- to 17-y-olds). 6 Given that physical activity habits in childhood tend to track into adulthood, 7 a high prevalence of physical inactivity

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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

global data for younger children. Global recommendations on physical activity for health have been established for 3 population age groups 3 (5–17 y, 18–64 y, and 65 y and older), but prior to 2019, the recommendation did not include children less than 5 years. Early childhood (<5 y) is a period of