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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

-trained athletes ( Jones, 2014b ). Beta-Alanine Overview Beta-alanine augments intracellular buffering capacity, having potential beneficial effects on sustained high-intensity exercise performance. Mechanism A rate-limiting precursor to the endogenous intracellular (muscle) buffer, carnosine; the immediate

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Children, Galveston, Texas, USA 4 Marlow Foods Ltd, Station Road, Stokesly, North Yorkshire, UK Mycoprotein is a fungal-derived sustainable protein-rich food source. We have previously shown that ingesting 70 g mycoprotein results in a robust stimulation of muscle protein synthesis rates. We aimed to

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and chronic sustained low EA. Cyclists with low EA, particularly in the long-term, displayed adverse quantifiable measures of bone, endocrinology and performance consequences of RED-S. The Impact of a 24-h Low FODMAP Diet on Exercise-Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Breath Hydrogen Responses

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

sustainability. Statistical Analysis Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS Statistics 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY) and Microsoft Excel 2016 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). Gaussian distribution of energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and study costs was assessed with the Shapiro–Wilk goodness-of-fit test

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Trent Stellingwerff

composition periodization coupled with performance and health outcomes. The overriding ethos was that it is not sustainable from a health and performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Although correlative in nature, this case

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

Purpose: Long-distance cross-country skiers specialize to compete in races >50 km predominantly using double poling (DP). This emphasizes the need for highly developed upper-body endurance capacities and an efficient DP technique. The aim of this study was to investigate potential effects of specialization by comparing physiological capacities and kinematics in DP between long-distance skiers and skiers competing using both techniques (skating/classic) in several competition formats (“all-round skiers”). Methods: Seven male long-distance (32 [6] y, 183 [6] cm, 76 [5] kg) and 6 all-round (25 [3] y, 181 [5] cm, 75 [6] kg) skiers at high international levels conducted submaximal workloads and an incremental test to exhaustion for determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and time to exhaustion (TTE) in DP and running. Results: In DP and running maximal tests, TTE showed no difference between groups. However, long-distance skiers had 5–6% lower VO2peak in running (81 [5] vs 85 [3] mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .07) and DP (73 [3] vs 78 [3] mL·kg−1·min−1; P < .01) than all-round skiers. In DP, long-distance skiers displayed lower submaximal O2 cost than all-round skiers (3.8 ± 3.6%; P < .05) without any major differences in cycle times or cyclic patterns of joint angles and center of mass. Lactate concentration over a wide range of speeds (45–85% of VO2peak) did not differ between groups, even though each workload corresponded to a slightly higher percentage of VO2peak for long-distance skiers (effect size: 0.30–0.68). Conclusions: The long-distance skiers displayed lower VO2peak but compensated with lower O2 cost to perform equally with the all-round skiers on a short TTE test in DP. Furthermore, similar submaximal lactate concentration and reduced O2 cost could be beneficial in sustaining high skiing speeds in long-duration competitions.

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

energy availability; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; RED-S = Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport; RMR = resting metabolic rate; EA = energy availability. RED-S in Male Road Cyclists Road cyclists may have LEA resulting from the sustained high energy expenditure combined with the challenges of

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

CHO to avoid sustained ketosis. • Typical intake = 15–20% energy from CHO (<2.5 g −1 ·kg −1 ·day −1 ), 15–20% protein, 60–65% fat in combination with a moderate-endurance training volume (>5 hr/week). • Deprivation of CHO for muscle fuel needs while consuming high amounts of dietary fat causes

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

mass per day, with an emphasis on timing, to sustain or increase muscle mass ( Paddon-Jones & Rasmussen, 2009 ; Tipton et al., 2007 ). This range provides flexibility and should be individualized based on the athlete’s requirements. Athletes should be encouraged to meet protein requirements by

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

- (25%), and high-risk (4%) categories based on the Triad tool and found that moderate- and high-risk category athletes were twice and nearly 4 times more likely to sustain a bone injury than low-risk athletes. We noted a higher prevalence of EA-associated problems in the lower caliber Finns. Whether