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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

-Cell total antioxidant control (Randox) and then analyzed at 340 nm by plate reader. Anthropometry and Body Composition Body composition was assessed between 9 and 10 AM after a 12-hour fast before and after the 6-day training program using an 8-polar tactile-electrode impedance meter (InBody 720; Biospace

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

appears that elite athletes include various versions of “train high,” “train low,” and “gut training” within their training programs, both accidentally and intentionally ( Heikura et al., 2018 ; Stellingwerff, 2012 ). Periodization of body composition provides another example of strategic integration of

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

.D. ( 2003 ). Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13 ( 2 ), 198 – 226 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.13.2.198 10.1123/ijsnem.13.2.198 Burke , D.G. , Candow , D.G. , Chilibeck , P

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

– 921 . PubMed ID: 6856678 doi: 10.1093/ptj/63.6.915 6. Porcari JP , Mclean KP , Foster C , Kernozek T , Crenshaw B , Swenson C . Effects of electrical muscle stimulation on body composition, muscle strength, and physical appearance . J Strength Cond Res . 2002 ; 16 ( 2 ): 165

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Flávia Cavalcante Monteiro Melo, Kátia Kamila Félix de Lima, Ana Paula Knackfuss Freitas Silveira, Kesley Pablo Morais de Azevedo, Isis Kelly dos Santos, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Leitão and Maria Irany Knackfuss

secondary to disability, improving functional capacity. In addition, it brings benefits to body composition and to physical fitness related to health. 16 Due to the functional losses that vary as a result of the individual’s level of injury and the triggering factors, it is necessary to identify the degree

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Janelle Prince, Eric Schussler and Ryan McCann

benefits for body composition, skeletal health, cardiorespiratory fitness, depression, anxiety, and academic achievement, 13 and it also improves cognition through increased cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction, brain metabolism, and neuroplasticity. 14 – 16 Aerobic exercise conducted at subsymptom and

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Robert J. Brychta, Vaka Rögnvaldsdóttir, Sigríður L. Guðmundsdóttir, Rúna Stefánsdóttir, Soffia M. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Sunna Gestsdóttir, Sigurbjörn A. Arngrímsson, Kong Y. Chen and Erlingur Jóhannsson

.1590/1980-5497201600020011 Kim , M. , Sasai , H. , Kojima , N. , & Kim , H. ( 2015 ). Objectively measured night-to-night sleep variations are associated with body composition in very elderly women . Journal of Sleep Research, 24 ( 6 ), 639 – 647 . PubMed ID: 26250860 doi:10.1111/jsr.12326 Knutson , K

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

). Other characteristics that may alter responsiveness to some supplements include sex and training status/athletic caliber. Males and females differ in many ways that are important for sports nutrition outcomes—for example, body size, body composition, and hormonal profiles that affect metabolism. Just as

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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza

.74 Cunningham , J.J. ( 1980 ). A reanalysis of the factors influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33 ( 11 ), 2372 – 2374 . PubMed ID: 7435418 doi:10.1093/ajcn/33.11.2372 Cunningham , J.J. ( 1991 ). Body composition as a determinant of energy

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

.1123/ijsn.3.1.29 10.1123/ijsn.3.1.29 Sundgot-Borgen , J. , & Garthe , I. ( 2011 ). Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition . Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 , 101 – 114 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.565783 10