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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

endocrine pathways and to identify sex differences to better inform future research and treatment of RED-S. We have summarized the key findings in Table  1 . Table 1 Summary of Endocrine Changes Using Direct or Surrogate Measures of Low EA Hormone Females Males HPG axis  FSH ↔ Gordon et al. ( 2017

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Kwok W. Ng, Gorden Sudeck, Adilson Marques, Alberto Borraccino, Zuzana Boberova, Jana Vasickova, Riki Tesler, Sami Kokko and Oddrun Samdal

conducted for boys and girls to analyze the transition in age cohorts in the proportion of daily MVPA. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to report the effect sizes for sex differences in PSP and MVPA. Multilevel analyses were carried out at the class level for PSP, with students at level 1 and classes at

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Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic and Laura Basterfield

no sex differences in handgrip strength and no association of handgrip z scores with BMI (Table  2 ). Handgrip strength was predicted by age ( P  = .001, Table  2 ). With regard to standing broad jump performance, 33% (n = 24; 6 boys), 23% (n = 17; 9 boys), and 23% (n = 17; 9 boys) of participants

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

. Wisløff U , Helgerud J . Methods for evaluating peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold in upper body of cross-country skiers . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1998 ; 30 : 963 – 970 . PubMed ID: 9624659 9624659 10.1249/00005768-199806000-00029 26. Helgerud J , Ingjer F , Strømme SB . Sex

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming and Sarah E. Williams

.25, SD  = .10) than those aged 65–80 years (self-efficacy: M  = 55.56, SD  = 2.13; outcome expectations: M  = 3.86, SD  = .05; self-regulation: M  = 2.35, SD  = .09; enjoyment: M  = 4.72, SD  = .14). With regard to sex differences, the factorial ANOVAs revealed there was a significant main effect

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

supplement use is rare. Despite gaps in the evidence base regarding sex differences with respect to supplement use, we generally believe that female athletes respond similarly to their male counterparts when circumstances are matched. Regardless, it is clear that further scrutiny is deserved. The concept

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Marcelo Toledo-Vargas, Patricio Perez-Contreras, Damian Chandia-Poblete and Nicolas Aguilar-Farias

: 24147817 doi:10.1089/chi.2013.0021 10.1089/chi.2013.0021 38. Ishii K , Shibata A , Adachi M , Mano Y , Oka K . School grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary behaviors among Japanese elementary school children: a cross-sectional study . BMC Public Health . 2017 ; 17 ( 1

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. , Feddermann-Demont , N. , Alonso , J.M. , Branco , P. , & Junge , A. ( 2015 ). Sex differences in injury during top-level international athletics championships: Surveillance data from 14 championships between 2007 and 2014 . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49 , 472 – 477 . PubMed ID: 25618889

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

use than their nonelite counterparts (SPE male: ∼48% and SPE female: ∼42%). Furthermore, sex differences were apparent, with greater use of supplemental iron reported by female athletes, whereas males used products such as protein, creatine, and vitamin E more often. Although specific supplement use

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

et al., 2017 ), comparing 5 days of EA of 189 kJ (45 kcal) and 63 kJ (15 kcal)·kg LBM −1 ·day −1 reported decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption in active women, but not in men. How much the variation in findings between studies reflect true sex differences or differences in their