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Rachel G. Curtis, Dorothea Dumuid, Timothy Olds, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Jillian Ryan, Sarah Edney and Carol Maher

for every participant. The GENEActiv has shown excellent reliability (intrainstrument coefficient of variation = 1.4%; interinstrument coefficient of variation = 2.1%) and validity ( r  = .98) using a mechanical shaker and excellent criterion validity when worn on the left wrist, using relative VO 2

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

some K-LCHF athletes may consume CHO on the day of an endurance/ultraendurance event and may practice this strategy during some training sessions (see below; Webster et al., 2017 ). • Although K-LCHF adaptation and enhanced fat oxidation may support exercise of moderate intensity (<75% VO 2 max

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

 = bone mineral density; BMI = body mass index; DE = disordered eating; EA = energy availability; EDs = eating disorders; EE = energy expenditure; FFM = fat-free mass; FM = fat mass; LEA = low energy availability; MD = menstrual dysfunction. a High aerobic capacity: VO 2 max; that is, the maximal amount

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

–18 years), compared CT with single-mode endurance (ET) or strength training (ST), and reported at least one strength/power—(e.g., jump height), endurance—(e.g., peak VO 2 , exercise economy), or performance-related (e.g., time trial) outcome. We calculated weighted standardized mean differences (SMDs). CT

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

and exposure to high levels of circulating ketone bodies. Indeed, an early study featuring 4 weeks of LCHF adaptation to such CHO restriction showed the muscle’s plasticity in being able to increase fat utilization to maintain exercise capacity at modest power outputs (∼60% VO 2 max; Phinney et

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Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Jeremy Vanhelst, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Caroline Ganière, Corinne Praznoczy, Benjamin Larras, Julien Schipman, Martine Duclos and David Thivel

endurance (n = 10,293), speed (n = 10,308), and the flexibility (n = 10,776) of French 10- to 14.9-year-olds. 28 These data were collected between 2009 and 2013, in 101 schools from 16 regions of France. On average, French youths were in the 68th percentile for cardiorespiratory fitness (using VO 2 max

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

(hr:min:s) 29:17:45 (Almaz Ayana) ∼8 km (no records) 1:04:51 Joyciline Jepkkosgei) 1:24:38 (Hong Lui) 2:15:25 (Paula Radcliffe) 4:04:36 (Rui Liang) Approximate intensity (%VO 2 max) 90–95% ≥Critical speed 90–95% ≥Critical speed 85–90% ≤Critical speed 80–90% ≤Critical speed 80–85% <Critical speed but

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

– 144 . PubMed ID: 20851861 doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2010.054213 10.1113/expphysiol.2010.054213 Périard , J.D. , & Racinais , S. ( 2015 ). Self-paced exercise in hot and cool conditions is associated with the maintenance of %VO2peak within a narrow range . Journal of Applied Physiology, 118 ( 10

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diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and VO 2 max. Despite testing 91 possible dose-response relationships, meta-regression analysis indicated only seven statistically significant associations. Our findings suggest that the CVD benefits are largely independent of the frequency, intensity, bout

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

efficiency of mitochondrial respiration; an increased blood flow to the muscle; a decrease in blood flow to VO 2 heterogeneities ( Bailey et al., 2010 ). Protocol of use High nitrate containing foods include leafy green and root vegetables, including spinach, rocket salad, celery, and beetroot. Acute