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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

of the identified studies. Results Identification of Studies A total of 1218 studies were identified through the electronic database searches (Figure  1 ). After exclusion of duplicates and review of titles and abstracts, 22 studies were considered eligible for inclusion in our review. One study

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

across athletics events especially for those who participate in middle- and long-distance events or jumping events. Regardless of event, the early identification of LEA and associated health issues is essential to guide intervention and prevent long-term secondary health consequences. Therefore

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

standardized anthropometric profiling, including identification of measurement sites, measurement techniques, and equipment. ISAK also supports training and certification of nutrition/exercise professionals and promotes the collection of intertester error and standards for intratester error of repeated

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Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio and Laura E. Middleton

environment) influence microlevel (e.g., individual) decisions, behaviors, and attitudes ( Henderson & Baffour, 2015 ). Furthermore, purposeful probing and identification of barriers within the social and physical environment may provide actionable steps to inform behavior-change strategies at these levels

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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza

et al., 2007b , 2008 ; Williams et al., 2015 ), early intervention and prevention are necessary. Currently, energy deficiency has no units of measure and there is no standard of measurement, thereby requiring alternative methods to be used for its identification. At present, the calculation of

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George B. Cunningham, Erin Buzuvis and Chris Mosier

identity, gender expression, and sex assigned at birth are all related to the following two terms: transgender and cisgender . According to Carroll ( 2014 ), transgender “describes an individual whose gender identity (one’s psychological identification as a boy/man or girl/woman) does not match the

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Dean Barker, Gunn Nyberg and Hakan Larsson

juggle anyway?” (Lesson 1, Observations). The identification of something “wrong” with one’s knowledge is consistent with Meyer and Land’s ( 2012 ) description of how learners begin to understand troublesome concepts. Meyer and Land ( 2012 ) propose that threshold crossing often requires some form of

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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

example, such details could include the type of random allocation sequence, the allocation ratio, and details of any minimization or restriction (e.g., stratification, blocking, and block size), with clear identification of the individuals responsible for generating/managing the allocation sequence

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

identification of several gaps in surveillance and research practice. Also, a paradox of higher physical activity and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior in countries reporting better infrastructure was highlighted. 16

Open access

Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

disinterest in physical activity begins early in life and there are no pharmacological treatments for physical inactivity ( 141 , 165 ). School care and health care should focus on the identification and treatment of youth with muscle weakness and should recognize muscle strength as a biomarker of health. At