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Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

Physical activity promotes mobility and independence ( Pahor et al., 2014 ), helps to prevent and manage a variety of chronic diseases ( Lee et al., 2012 ), reduces the risk of falls and related injuries ( Gillespie et al., 2012 ), and enhances physical, mental, and social health ( Bauman, Merom

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Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel

; Moore et al., 2012 ). Physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep, in particular, are three lifestyle factors with the potential to impact health and well-being in older adults ( Buman et al., 2014 ; Mekary, Willett, Hu, & Ding, 2009 ). These three behaviors can also be characterized by

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Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, James R. Morrow Jr. and Anne-Lorraine T. Woolsey

Context:

The selection of the most psychometrically appropriate self-report tool(s) to measure specific physical activity constructs has been a challenge for researchers, public health practitioners, and clinicians, alike. The lack of a reasonable gold standard measure and inconsistent use of established and evolving terminology have contributed to these challenges. The variation of self-report measures and quality of the derived summary estimates could be attributed to the absence of a standardized conceptual framework for physical activity.

Objective:

To present a conceptual framework for physical activity as a complex and multidimensional behavior that differentiates behavioral and physiological constructs of human movement.

Process:

The development of a conceptual framework can provide the basic foundation from which to standardize definitions, guide design and development of self-report measures, and provide consistency during instrument selection.

Conclusions:

Based on our proposed conceptual framework for physical activity, we suggest that physical activity is more clearly defined as the behavior that involves human movement, resulting in physiological attributes including increased energy expenditure and improved physical fitness. Utilization of the proposed conceptual framework can result in better instrument choices and consistency in methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors across research and public health practice.

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Janet E. Fulton, David M. Buchner, Susan A. Carlson, Deborah Borbely, Kenneth M. Rose, Ann E. O’Connor, Janelle P. Gunn and Ruth Petersen

Heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are leading causes of death in the United States. 1 Nearly half of adults live with a chronic disease. 2 The United States spends more than 80% of health care dollars on people with chronic medical conditions. 2 Physical activity can reduce the risk of

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Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield and Samuel W. Logan

Daily physical activity (PA) is associated with reduced risk for comorbid conditions 1 and more favorable school functioning related to attendance, cognitive performance, and classroom behaviors. 2 , 3 The most current National Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (2nd edition) recommends

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Richard P. Troiano, Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, Gregory J. Welk, Neville Owen and Barbara Sternfeld

Context:

Advances in device-based measures have led researchers to question the value of reported measures of physical activity or sedentary behavior. The premise of the Workshop on Measurement of Active and Sedentary Behaviors: Closing the Gaps in Self-Report Methods, held in July 2010, was that assessment of behavior by self-report is a valuable approach.

Objective:

To provide suggestions to optimize the value of reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, we 1) discuss the constructs that devices and reports of behavior can measure, 2) develop a framework to help guide decision-making about the best approach to physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment in a given situation, and 3) address the potential for combining reported behavior methods with device-based monitoring to enhance both approaches.

Process:

After participation in a workshop breakout session, coauthors summarized the ideas presented and reached consensus on the material presented here.

Conclusions:

To select appropriate physical activity assessment methods and correctly interpret the measures obtained, researchers should carefully consider the purpose for assessment, physical activity constructs of interest, characteristics of the population and measurement tool, and the theoretical link between the exposure and outcome of interest.

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Jennifer McConnell-Nzunga, Katie A. Weatherson, Louise Masse, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Erica Lau, Heather McKay, Viviene Temple, Luke Wolfenden and Patti J. Naylor

Physical activity (PA) is critical to early childhood development, as it is associated with motor skill acquisition, psychosocial, cognitive and language development, and physical health. 1 Many Canadian children are not active enough to achieve these health benefits, as national surveys from 2009

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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

adverse health and behavioral outcomes than other domains of sedentary behavior (eg, using a computer, sitting during transportation, or sitting at work), 4 , 5 and it may even lead to premature deaths during adulthood. 6 On the other hand, evidence shows that regular leisure-time physical activity

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Erin Strutz, Raymond Browning, Stephanie Smith, Barbara Lohse and Leslie Cunningham-Sabo

Despite recognition that more physically active youth and adults maintain better overall health, 1 , 2 physical activity (PA) levels continue to remain below the number of recommended daily minutes. 3 Current PA guidelines urge children to engage in a minimum of 60 minutes of daily moderate

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Philippa M. Dall, Dawn A. Skelton, Manon L. Dontje, Elaine H. Coulter, Sally Stewart, Simon R. Cox, Richard J. Shaw, Iva Čukić, Claire F. Fitzsimons, Carolyn A. Greig, Malcolm H. Granat, Geoff Der, Ian J. Deary, Sebastien F.M. Chastin and On behalf of the Seniors USP Team

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are important modifiable risk factors related to a range of health conditions, including mortality, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and cancer ( Biswas et al., 2015 ; Ekelund et al., 2016 ). Objective measures, using body-worn sensors