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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

.g., provincial sport organization, online university posts). The participants visited a link to an online survey, which began with an informed consent form, followed by a brief demographic survey. The participants then completed the following measures: SCS, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the SPWB, the IMT, the

Open access

Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

involvement of these variables is provided in Table  3 , as well as other specific reviews on dietary standardization prior to performance trials ( Jeacocke & Burke, 2010 ), external sources of motivation ( Halperin et al., 2015 ), and the organization of reliable and valid measurements of performance

Open access

Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

2007 by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. As illness data have increased ( Hellard et al., 2015 ; Svendsen et al., 2015 ), organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the International Associations of Athletics Federations, have initiated acute illness surveillance systems to improve

Open access

Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

of the paper. K. E. Reed, H. Lynch, and J. M. Dickinson have no conflicts. M. Messina is the executive director of the Soy Nutrition Institute, an organization that is partially funded by the soy industry. References Anthony , J.C. , Yoshizawa , F. , Anthony , T.G. , Vary , T.C. , Jefferson

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

:// . Accessed May 30, 2018. 25862451 26. World Health Organization . Global Recommendation on Physical Activity for Health . 2010 . . Accessed January 11, 2018. 27. Aguilar-Farias N , Martino-Fuentealba P , Carcamo-Oyarzun J , et

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

approach to managing a risk:benefit audit around the use of sports foods, therapeutic/prophylactic supplements, and performance supplements. This has been led by organizations such as the International Olympic Committee and the Australian Institute of Sport, that have produced expert statements ( Maughan

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

 al., 2011 ; Phillips & Van Loon, 2011 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ) and the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) ( Lee & Nieman, 2013 ) of the athlete’s country or the World Health Organization. The DRIs for micronutrients in the United States and Canada encompass the estimated average requirement ([EAR] a

Open access

Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

, Smith JA , Nieman DC . Exercise and cellular innate immune function . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1999 ; 31 ( 1 ): 57 – 66 . 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00011 9927011 173. World Health Organization (WHO) . Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030: More Active People for a Healthier World

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Carl J. Caspersen, Charles E. Matthews, Louise C. Mâsse, Tom Baranowski and Weimo Zhu


Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results.


To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report.


We provide an overview of presentations and a compilation of perspectives shared by the authors of this paper and workgroup members.


We identified a conceptual framework for reducing errors using physical activity self-report questionnaires. The framework identifies 6 steps to reduce error: 1) identifying the need to measure physical activity, 2) selecting an instrument, 3) collecting data, 4) analyzing data, 5) developing a summary score, and 6) interpreting data. Underlying the first 4 steps are behavioral parameters of type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed, activity domains, and the location where activities are performed. We identified ways to reduce measurement error at each step and made recommendations for practitioners, researchers, and organizational units to reduce error in questionnaire assessment of physical activity.


Self-report measures of physical activity have a prominent role in research and practice settings. Measurement error may be reduced by applying the framework discussed in this paper.

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Lucy-Joy M. Wachira, Stella K. Muthuri, Mark S. Tremblay and Vincent O. Onywera


The report card presents available evidence on the physical activity (PA) and body weight status of Kenyan children and youth. It highlights areas where Kenya is succeeding and those in which more action is needed.


Comprehensive review and analysis of available data on core indicators for Kenyan children and youth 5−17 years were conducted. The grading system used was based on a set of specific criteria and existing grading schemes from similar report cards in other countries.


Of the 10 core indicators discussed, body composition was favorable (grade B) while overall PA levels, organized sport participation, and active play were assigned grades of C. Active transportation and sedentary behaviors were also favorable (grade B). Family/peers, school, governmental and nongovernmental strategies were graded C.


The majority of Kenyan children and youth have healthy body composition levels and acceptable sedentary time, but are not doing as well in attaining the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation on PA. Although Kenya seems to be doing well in most indicators compared with some developed countries, there is a need for action to address existing trends toward unhealthy lifestyles. More robust and representative data for all indicators are required.