of the paper. K. E. Reed, H. Lynch, and J. M. Dickinson have no conflicts. M. Messina is the executive director of the Soy Nutrition Institute, an organization that is partially funded by the soy industry. References Anthony , J.C. , Yoshizawa , F. , Anthony , T.G. , Vary , T.C. , Jefferson
Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed
Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke
approach to managing a risk:benefit audit around the use of sports foods, therapeutic/prophylactic supplements, and performance supplements. This has been led by organizations such as the International Olympic Committee and the Australian Institute of Sport, that have produced expert statements ( Maughan
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay
://www.przeglepidemiol.pzh.gov.pl/perceived-barriers-to-physical-activity-among-polish-adolescents?lang=pl . Accessed May 30, 2018. 25862451 26. World Health Organization . Global Recommendation on Physical Activity for Health . 2010 . http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_recommendations/en/ . Accessed January 11, 2018. 27. Aguilar-Farias N , Martino-Fuentealba P , Carcamo-Oyarzun J , et
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke
al., 2011 ; Phillips & Van Loon, 2011 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ) and the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) ( Lee & Nieman, 2013 ) of the athlete’s country or the World Health Organization. The DRIs for micronutrients in the United States and Canada encompass the estimated average requirement ([EAR] a
Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands
, Smith JA , Nieman DC . Exercise and cellular innate immune function . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1999 ; 31 ( 1 ): 57 – 66 . 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00011 9927011 173. World Health Organization (WHO) . Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030: More Active People for a Healthier World
Lucy-Joy M. Wachira, Stella K. Muthuri, Mark S. Tremblay and Vincent O. Onywera
The report card presents available evidence on the physical activity (PA) and body weight status of Kenyan children and youth. It highlights areas where Kenya is succeeding and those in which more action is needed.
Comprehensive review and analysis of available data on core indicators for Kenyan children and youth 5−17 years were conducted. The grading system used was based on a set of specific criteria and existing grading schemes from similar report cards in other countries.
Of the 10 core indicators discussed, body composition was favorable (grade B) while overall PA levels, organized sport participation, and active play were assigned grades of C. Active transportation and sedentary behaviors were also favorable (grade B). Family/peers, school, governmental and nongovernmental strategies were graded C.
The majority of Kenyan children and youth have healthy body composition levels and acceptable sedentary time, but are not doing as well in attaining the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation on PA. Although Kenya seems to be doing well in most indicators compared with some developed countries, there is a need for action to address existing trends toward unhealthy lifestyles. More robust and representative data for all indicators are required.
Barbara E. Ainsworth, Carl J. Caspersen, Charles E. Matthews, Louise C. Mâsse, Tom Baranowski and Weimo Zhu
Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results.
To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report.
We provide an overview of presentations and a compilation of perspectives shared by the authors of this paper and workgroup members.
We identified a conceptual framework for reducing errors using physical activity self-report questionnaires. The framework identifies 6 steps to reduce error: 1) identifying the need to measure physical activity, 2) selecting an instrument, 3) collecting data, 4) analyzing data, 5) developing a summary score, and 6) interpreting data. Underlying the first 4 steps are behavioral parameters of type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed, activity domains, and the location where activities are performed. We identified ways to reduce measurement error at each step and made recommendations for practitioners, researchers, and organizational units to reduce error in questionnaire assessment of physical activity.
Self-report measures of physical activity have a prominent role in research and practice settings. Measurement error may be reduced by applying the framework discussed in this paper.
Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch
Action If this special issue sparks an interest in you, please act on your passion. Conduct research and practice in this area. Be an advocate for a safe workplace. Institutions where sexual harassment festers—athletic organizations, colleges, businesses—should form mutual partnerships with advocates of
Lewis Keane, Emma Sherry, Nico Schulenkorf, Joel Negin, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Edward Jegasothy and Justin Richards
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 41 million people die annually from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), the equivalent to 71% of global mortality. 1 Cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of the NCD burden, causing 17.9 million deaths annually, followed by cancers (9
Alan L. Smith and Daniel Gould
believe that the ISYS has played an important role in the development and direction of youth sport scholarship. We then provide an overview of the organization and contents of this special issue. The issue addresses a broad range of topics and critical issues in contemporary youth sport that have bearing