performed moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). In addition to reducing the risk of dementia, physical activity improves several components of cognition, including executive function (ie, the organization of everyday activities, planning for the future, and self-regulation of impulsive
Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover
Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec
. • Seek guidance from your anti-doping organization about recent information on contaminated or dangerous products in your part of the world (e.g., USA Anti-Doping Agency High Risk List). It must be emphasized that these steps will not eliminate completely the risk of ingesting a prohibited substance, but
Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter
, stand up for self and others, and develop healthy connections with others ( www.girlsontherun.org ). Girls on the Run collaborates with elementary and middle schools to provide opportunities for all girls interested in participating. The organizational network consists of >200 councils serving more
Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson
.g., provincial sport organization, online university posts). The participants visited a link to an online survey, which began with an informed consent form, followed by a brief demographic survey. The participants then completed the following measures: SCS, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the SPWB, the IMT, the
Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed
of the paper. K. E. Reed, H. Lynch, and J. M. Dickinson have no conflicts. M. Messina is the executive director of the Soy Nutrition Institute, an organization that is partially funded by the soy industry. References Anthony , J.C. , Yoshizawa , F. , Anthony , T.G. , Vary , T.C. , Jefferson
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay
://www.przeglepidemiol.pzh.gov.pl/perceived-barriers-to-physical-activity-among-polish-adolescents?lang=pl . Accessed May 30, 2018. 25862451 26. World Health Organization . Global Recommendation on Physical Activity for Health . 2010 . http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_recommendations/en/ . Accessed January 11, 2018. 27. Aguilar-Farias N , Martino-Fuentealba P , Carcamo-Oyarzun J , et
Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke
approach to managing a risk:benefit audit around the use of sports foods, therapeutic/prophylactic supplements, and performance supplements. This has been led by organizations such as the International Olympic Committee and the Australian Institute of Sport, that have produced expert statements ( Maughan
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke
al., 2011 ; Phillips & Van Loon, 2011 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ) and the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) ( Lee & Nieman, 2013 ) of the athlete’s country or the World Health Organization. The DRIs for micronutrients in the United States and Canada encompass the estimated average requirement ([EAR] a
Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands
, Smith JA , Nieman DC . Exercise and cellular innate immune function . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1999 ; 31 ( 1 ): 57 – 66 . 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00011 9927011 173. World Health Organization (WHO) . Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030: More Active People for a Healthier World
Barbara E. Ainsworth, Carl J. Caspersen, Charles E. Matthews, Louise C. Mâsse, Tom Baranowski and Weimo Zhu
Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results.
To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report.
We provide an overview of presentations and a compilation of perspectives shared by the authors of this paper and workgroup members.
We identified a conceptual framework for reducing errors using physical activity self-report questionnaires. The framework identifies 6 steps to reduce error: 1) identifying the need to measure physical activity, 2) selecting an instrument, 3) collecting data, 4) analyzing data, 5) developing a summary score, and 6) interpreting data. Underlying the first 4 steps are behavioral parameters of type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed, activity domains, and the location where activities are performed. We identified ways to reduce measurement error at each step and made recommendations for practitioners, researchers, and organizational units to reduce error in questionnaire assessment of physical activity.
Self-report measures of physical activity have a prominent role in research and practice settings. Measurement error may be reduced by applying the framework discussed in this paper.