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Elva M. Arredondo, Tamar Mendelson, Christina Holub, Nancy Espinoza and Simon Marshall

Context:

The validity of physical activity (PA) self-report measures can be a problem when using these measures with target populations that differ from the population for which the measures were originally developed.

Objectives:

Describe an approach to further tailor PA self-report measures to a target community, and report on focus group and cognitive interview findings.

Process:

Topics relevant to culturally tailoring measures are discussed, including translation, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We describe examples from our own work, including focus groups and cognitive interviews conducted to assess Latinos’ interpretations of PA questions derived from various epidemiological surveys that were developed in White communities.

Findings:

Findings from focus groups and cognitive interviews provide valuable information about the comprehension, interpretation, and cultural relevance of the PA questions to Latino communities.

Conclusions:

It is recommended that investigators collect formative data to better assess the equivalence of items being applied to a different cultural group. Guidelines for cultural attunement of self-report instruments are described to promote more uniform and rigorous processes of adaptation and facilitate cross-cultural investigations.

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Jonathan M. Casper, Jason N. Bocarro, Michael A. Kanters and Myron F. Floyd

Background:

Organized sport is viewed as a viable medium for promoting more physical activity among youth. However, participation in youth sport declines significantly among both boys and girls during their middle school years. This study examined middle school students’ perceived constraints to sport participation.

Methods:

Middle school students from 4 schools (6th−8th grade, N = 2465) completed a web based survey (97.3% response rate). Descriptive analysis, t tests, and ANOVA were used to assess extent of perceived constraints and differences among demographic and sport participation level subgroups.

Results:

The most salient constraint perceived by respondents was time, while knowledge was perceived as the lowest among the overall sample. Significant (P < .01) differences in perceived constraints were found among all comparisons groups. Girls, Latinos, lower SES students, and students who did not play sports reported more constraints than respective comparisons groups.

Discussion:

The sociodemographic characteristics of middle school students appear to be a significant factor in their perception of constraints to sport participation. Identifying constraints associated with sport participation can enable policy-makers and administrators to be more deliberate in channeling resources.

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Genevieve F. Dunton, Yue Liao, Stephen Intille, Jennifer Wolch and Mary Ann Pentz

Background:

This study used real-time electronic surveys delivered through mobile phones, known as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), to determine whether level and experience of leisure-time physical activity differ across children’s physical and social contexts.

Methods:

Children (N = 121; ages 9 to 13 years; 52% male, 32% Hispanic/Latino) participated in 4 days (Fri.–Mon.) of EMA during nonschool time. Electronic surveys (20 total) assessed primary activity (eg, active play/sports/exercise), physical location (eg, home, outdoors), social context (eg, friends, alone), current mood (positive and negative affect), and enjoyment. Responses were time-matched to the number of steps and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; measured by accelerometer) in the 30 minutes before each survey.

Results:

Mean steps and MVPA were greater outdoors than at home or at someone else’s house (all P < .05). Steps were greater with multiple categories of company (eg, friends and family together) than with family members only or alone (all P < .05). Enjoyment was greater outdoors than at home or someone else’s house (all P < .05). Negative affect was greater when alone and with family only than friends only (all P < .05).

Conclusion:

Results describing the value of outdoor and social settings could inform context-specific interventions in this age group.

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Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis

In the United States, nearly 1 in 3 young people is overweight or obese. Lower-income toddlers, children, and adolescents in historically underserved populations—African American, American Indian, Latino-Hispanic, and subpopulations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islander cultures—are at highest

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Ricky Camplain, Julie A. Baldwin, Meghan Warren, Carolyn Camplain, Monica R. Lininger and Robert T. Trotter

jail already come from underserved minority populations. 6 – 8 Black men have a 1 in 3 and Latino men have a 1 in 6 lifetime risk of incarceration compared with non-Hispanic white men who have a 1 in 23 lifetime risk of incarceration. 9 These minority and underserved populations, who are

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

their number of years of experience, and 2 schools had a majority of early career teachers, within the first 5 years of practice. Table 1 Characteristics of Participating Elementary Schools School A School B School C School D School E Student characteristics  White non-Hispanic/Latino students, % 80

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Flávia Cavalcante Monteiro Melo, Kátia Kamila Félix de Lima, Ana Paula Knackfuss Freitas Silveira, Kesley Pablo Morais de Azevedo, Isis Kelly dos Santos, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Leitão and Maria Irany Knackfuss

deficiência física . Rev Latino-Am Enferm . 2012 ; 21 : 1 – 8 . 2. Borges AMF , Brignol P , Schoeller SD , Bonetti A . Percepção das pessoas com lesão medular sobre a sua condição . Rev Gaúcha Enferm . 2012 ; 33 : 119 – 125 . doi:10.1590/S1983-14472012000300016 10.1590/S1983

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

. Associations between physical activity and BMI, body fatness, and visceral adiposity in overweight or obese Latino and non-Latino adults . Int J Obes . 2017 ; 41 ( 6 ): 873 – 877 . doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.49 10.1038/ijo.2017.49 35. Clarke J , Janssen I . Sporadic and bouted physical activity and the

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

.1046/j.1445-2197.2003.02748.x 12956787 10.1046/j.1445-2197.2003.02748.x 7. Alhassan S , Sirard JR , Robinson TN . The effects of increasing outdoor play time on physical activity in Latino preschool children . Int J Pediatr Obes . 2007 ; 2 : 153 – 158 . PubMed ID: 17852547 doi:10

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Jeanette Gustat, Christopher E. Anderson, Keelia O’Malley, Tian Hu, Rachel G. Tabak, Karin Valentine Goins, Cheryl Valko, Jill S. Litt and Amy A. Eyler

, Mitchell SJ , Thompson J , et al . Parental perception of built environment characteristics and built environment use among Latino families: a cross-sectional study . BMC Public Health . 2016 ; 16 : 1180 . PubMed ID: 27876038 doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3854-7 27876038 10.1186/s12889-016-3854-7 24