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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

Because of the wide range of physiological, biomechanical, and anthropometrical demands in endurance sports, specialization is often considered a prerequisite for reaching an elite performance level. As an example, marathon runners display lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) than 5- to 10-km

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Gunnar Andersson, Peter Wallin and Björn Ekblom

, together with additional PA outside school hours, on adult PA level, maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ), and perceived and metabolic health later in life in a large sample of Swedish men and women of a broad age span. Methods From October 1982 to September 2015, 363,746 men and women, aged 19

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

least 12 months and without a history of recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms volunteered to participate in the study (age, 26.7 ± 5.2 years; body mass, 69.6 ± 8.4 kg; height, 1.82 ± 0.09 m; body mass index, 21.2 ± 1.5 kg/m 2 ; VO 2 peak, 63.9 ± 2.5 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ; W max,  389.3 ± 50.4 W; hours

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

 = phosphocreatine; PRO = protein; RFD = rate of force development; suppl. = supplementation; SV = stroke volume; VO 2 max = maximal oxygen consumption. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800- to 5,000-m races being at ∼95% to 130% of VO 2 max ( Duffield et al., 2005 ), or 75–85% of maximum sprint speed

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Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková

in a heterogenous group of athletes. Methods Participants A total of 16 male athletes (mean [SD]; age 31.6 [8.6] y, body mass 71.5 [8.8] kg, body height 177.0 [7.2] kg, body fat 13.4% [4.4%], VO 2 max 57.2 [8.9] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) volunteered for this study. They followed instructions to avoid using

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John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Daniel S. Hsia, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Energy expenditure (EE) estimates for a broad age range of youth performing a variety of activities are needed.

Methods:

106 participants (6–18 years) completed 6 free-living activities (seated rest, movie watching, coloring, stair climbing, basketball dribbling, jumping jacks) and up to 9 treadmill walking bouts (13.4 to 120.7 m/min; 13.4 m/min increments). Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured using the COSMED K4b2 and EE was quantified as youth metabolic equivalents (METy1:VO2/measured resting VO2, METy2:VO2/estimated resting VO2). Age trends were evaluated with ANOVA.

Results:

Seated movie watching produced the lowest mean METy1 (6- to 9-year-olds: 0.94 ± 0.13) and METy2 values (13- to 15-year-olds: 1.10 ± 0.19), and jumping jacks produced the highest mean METy1 (13- to 15-year-olds: 6.89 ± 1.47) and METy2 values (16- to 18-year-olds: 8.61 ± 2.03). Significant age-related variability in METy1 and METy2 were noted for 8 and 2 of the 15 evaluated activities, respectively.

Conclusions:

Descriptive EE data presented herein will augment the Youth Compendium of Physical Activities.

Open access

Kristin S. Ondrak and Robert G. McMurray

Background:

Researchers have investigated the energy expenditure of tennis practice and match play in adults but not youth.

Methods:

VO2 was recorded for 36 youth, ages 9 to 18, during 10-minute bouts of tennis practice and match play. A GLM was used to compare VO2 between practice and match play and among age groups (9–12 years, 13–15 years, and 16–18 years); also to compare the difference in adult and child-derived MET values (ΔMET).

Results:

VO2 was higher for tennis match play vs. practice (P < .05) and there was a trend for 16 to 18 year olds having lower VO2 than 9 to 12 year olds (P = .055). ΔMET did not differ between settings but varied by age group (P = .004); it was highest in 9- to 12-year-olds and lowest in 16- to 18-year-olds.

Conclusions:

Youth expend more energy while playing a tennis match than practice, regardless of age. Child-derived MET values equaled those of adults once youth reached ages 16 to 18.

Open access

Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Cheryl A. Howe, Dinesh John, Amanda Hickey, Jeremy Steeves, Scott Conger, Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey-Keadle, Sarah Burkart, Sofiya Alhassan, David Bassett Jr and Patty S. Freedson

Background:

Thirty-five percent of the activities assigned MET values in the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth were obtained from direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to provide directly measured EE for several different activities in youth.

Methods:

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 178 youths (80 females, 98 males) was first measured. Participants then performed structured activity bouts while wearing a portable metabolic system to directly measure EE. Steady-state oxygen consumption data were used to compute activity METstandard (activity VO2/3.5) and METmeasured (activity VO2/measured RMR) for the different activities.

Results:

Rates of EE were measured for 70 different activities and ranged from 1.9 to 12.0 METstandard and 1.5 to 10.0 METmeasured.

Conclusion:

This study provides directly measured energy cost values for 70 activities in children and adolescents. It contributes empirical data to support the expansion of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

Open access

Kate Ridley and Timothy Olds

Background:

To improve the scope of the Youth Compendium of Energy Expenditures, a range of everyday activities of varying intensity should be measured. This study measures the energy cost of children undertaking common household chores, rollerblading and riding a foot-propelled scooter.

Methods:

Participants were 9- to 14-year-old children. A metabolic cart was used to measure oxygen cost (VO2) of a variety of household chores. A Cosmed K4b2 portable oxygen analyzer was used to measure VO2 during rollerblading and riding a scooter at self-selected speeds. Energy costs for each participant were calculated as child METs.

Results:

Mean child MET costs for the household chores ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 METs. Rollerblading and riding a scooter yielded mean child MET costs of 6.5 and 6.3 METs respectively.

Conclusions:

Household chores were found to be of light to moderate intensity, while rollerblading and riding a scooter were vigorous activities.

Open access

Wonwoo Byun, Allison Barry and Jung-Min Lee

Background:

There has been a call for updating the Youth Compendium of Energy Expenditure (YCEE) by including energy expenditure (EE) data of young children (ie, < 6-year-old children). Therefore, this study examined the activity EE in 3 to 6 year old children using indirect calorimetry.

Methods:

Using Oxycon Mobile portable indirect calorimetry, both the oxygen consumption (VO2) and the EE of 28 children (Girls: 46%, Age: 4.8 ± 1.0, BMI: 16.4 ± 1.6) were measured while they performed various daily living activities (eg, watching TV, playing with toys, shooting baskets, soccer).

Results:

Across physical activities, averages of VO2 (ml·kg·min-1), VO2 (L·min-1), and EE ranged from 8.9 ± 1.5 to 33.3 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min-1, from 0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.16 L·min-1, and from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.7 kcal·min-1, respectively.

Conclusions:

These findings will contribute to the upcoming YCEE update.