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Anna E. Mathews, Delores Pluto, Olga Ogoussan and Jorge Banda

Background:

When promoting active travel to school, it is important to consider school and district policies as well as attitudes of school and district administrators.

Methods:

School principals and district officials in South Carolina participated in the School Travel Survey. Frequency distributions and Chi-squared tests were used to analyze the data.

Results:

Three hundred fourteen persons responded to the survey (53.2% response rate). Sixty-five percent of district officials reported having a clear position about students walking to school, 80.0% of which were supportive. Seventy-two percent of principals reported having a clear position about walking to school, 67% of which were supportive. These positions were most commonly communicated either orally or through memos or other written documentation rather than through official, written policies or directives. Respondents who personally supported walking to school were more likely to believe that walking to school benefited students' health (χ2 = 8.82, df = 1, P = .003) and academic performance (χ2 = 14.87, df = 1, P < .0001).

Conclusions:

Promotion of walking to school should encourage schools and districts to develop official, written directives or policies. Promotional efforts may benefit from linking active travel to academic performance and health.

Open access

Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

( Angevaren et al., 2007 ). Although LTPA is beneficial for improving a variety of health outcomes, it is less clear whether non-LTPA offers similar benefits. One type of non-LTPA is known as active travel , generally described as walking or cycling to and from places for 10 or more minutes. Although active

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Anna Goodman, James Paskins and Roger Mackett

Background:

Children in primary school are more physically active in the spring/summer. Little is known about the relative contributions of day length and weather, however, or about the underlying behavioral mediators.

Methods:

325 British children aged 8 to 11 wore accelerometers as an objective measure of physical activity, measured in terms of mean activity counts. Children simultaneously completed diaries in which we identified episodes of out-of-home play, structured sports, and active travel. Our main exposure measures were day length, temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and wind speed.

Results:

Overall physical activity was higher on long days (≥ 14 hours daylight), but there was no difference between short (< 9.5 hours) and medium days (10.2–12.6 hours). The effect of long day length was largest between 5 PM and 8 PM, and persisted after adjusting for rainfall, cloud cover, and wind. Up to half this effect was explained by a greater duration and intensity of out-of-home play on long days; structured sports and active travel were less affected by day length.

Conclusions:

At least above a certain threshold, longer afternoon/evening daylight may have a causal role in increasing child physical activity. This strengthens the public health arguments for daylight saving measures such as those recently under consideration in Britain.

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Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

those barriers. They were also encouraged to add new destinations to their personal travel plan after 6 weeks. Participants and activity coach jointly signing off on their personal physical activity and active travel plans. c. Transit training: A single 60-min group transit training workshop was led by

Open access

Ralph Maddison, Samantha Marsh, Erica Hinckson, Scott Duncan, Sandra Mandic, Rachael Taylor and Melody Smith

Background:

In this article, we report the grades for the second New Zealand Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which represents a synthesis of available New Zealand evidence across 9 core indicators.

Methods:

An expert panel of physical activity (PA) researchers collated and reviewed available nationally representative survey data between March and May 2016. In the absence of new data, (2014–2016) regional level data were used to inform the direction of existing grades. Grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is Incomplete data.

Results:

Overall PA, Active Play, and Government Initiatives were graded B-; Community Environments was graded B; Sport Participation and School Environment received a C+; Sedentary Behaviors and Family/Peer Support were graded C; and Active Travel was graded C-.

Conclusions:

Overall PA participation was satisfactory for young children but not for youth. The grade for PA decreased slightly from the 2014 report card; however, there was an improvement in grades for built and school environments, which may support regional and national-level initiatives for promoting PA.

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Alun Williams, Lucy Whitman, Yve Le Page, Colin Le Page, Graham Chester and Simon J. Sebire

play Active Transportation D 43% of primary pupils and 25% of secondary school pupils reported active travel to school on the day of the survey (walking/ bicycle/ scooter). Years 6, 8+10 average = 31% Sedentary Behaviors C 74% of primary school pupils and 39% of secondary school pupils reported no more

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Wendy Y. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Cindy H.P. Sit, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, Sam W.S. Wong and Jane J. Yu

they actively travel to school at least once per week. 5 52% of primary school children use active travel to/from school at least 5 times per week. 7 Sedentary Behaviors C- 51% of the youth aged 12-23 years spend no more than 2 hours per day using the Internet. 8 52% of primary school children spend

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Melody Smith, Erika Ikeda, Erica Hinckson, Scott Duncan, Ralph Maddison, Kim Meredith-Jones, Caroline Walker and Sandra Mandic

 al . Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: Study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children’s physical activity, active travel, independent mobility, and body size . BMJ Open . 2016 ; 6 ( 8 ): e013377 . doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013377 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013377 27531740 5. Mandic

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Michael Mutz and Marlena van Munster

activity, urban planning initiatives to foster active travel like cycling and walking, the implementation of health and activity promotion in schools, community interventions to promote physical activity among senior citizens, or the development of campaigns to raise public awareness for physical activity

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to estimate ratios of concentrations in active travel vs motorized travel modes for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). Comparisons were made for ratios obtained in different continents. Results: Of 280 articles examined, 27