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Neil Armstrong

Aerobic (or cardiorespiratory or cardiopulmonary) fitness reflects the integrated ability to deliver oxygen from the atmosphere to the skeletal muscles and to utilize it to generate energy to support muscle activity during exercise. Aerobic fitness is the most researched physiological variable in

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 ) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, and laboratory-determined peak V ˙ O 2 data from children and adolescents have been available for over 80 years. However, throughout this period, the development of peak V ˙ O 2

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

Aerobic fitness defines the ability to deliver oxygen to the muscles and to use it to generate energy to support muscle activity during exercise. Peak oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ), the highest V ˙ O 2 achieved during an incremental exercise test to exhaustion, is internationally recognized as the

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Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic and Laura Basterfield

Physical fitness can be defined as a set of characteristics related to health and performance, including aerobic fitness, muscular endurance, strength and power, body composition, flexibility, balance, agility, and reaction time ( 7 , 22 ). In children and adolescents, the characteristics directly

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Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen and Tuija H. Tammelin

physically active lifestyle with learning outcomes has also recently received considerable attention. Previous studies have suggested that excessive screen time 7 , 8 and excess adiposity 9 , 10 may predict poorer academic achievement (AA), whereas regular PA and higher aerobic fitness 11 , 12 benefit AA

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Ian M. Greenlund, Piersan E. Suriano, Steven J. Elmer, Jason R. Carter and John J. Durocher

pressure. 15 Aerobic fitness was estimated via a Rockport Walk test 16 on a treadmill at 1% grade within the laboratory following completion of a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology). Following the orientation session, participants reported to the

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

, & Kramer, 2015 for a review). For example, a cross-sectional study using a hippocampus-dependent relational memory task in children ( Chaddock et al., 2010 ) has indicated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with larger hippocampal volume and superior memory performance. A longitudinal, randomized

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

because there were no eligible empirical papers but because, collectively, the reviews address what are currently the 2 most popular areas of research in pediatric aerobic fitness and training. The reviews outline what we know, identify serious gaps in our knowledge, and indicate promising avenues of

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

exercise 1,500-m TT (200-m indoor track) NO 3 − : 250.5 ± 6.2 s −0.36 PLA: 251.4 ± 7.6 s Porcelli et al. ( 2015 ) n  = 6 High aerobic fitness/double-blind placebo-controlled crossover 500-ml water containing NO 3 − (∼5.5 mmol·NO 3 − ) for 6 days, last taken 3.5 hr prior to exercise 3,000-m TT (400-m

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

sports nutrition . Sports Medicine, 48 ( 1 ), 7 – 16 . doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0776-1 10.1007/s40279-017-0776-1 Porcelli , S. , Ramaglia , M. , Bellistri , G. , Pavei , G. , Pugliese , L. , Montorsi , M. , … Martorati , M. ( 2015 ). Aerobic fitness affects the exercise performance