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Laurence Chalip

The United States is struggling to hold its own in international competitions. The Amateur Sports Act mandates that the USOC and its NGBs should build American sport performances by fostering sport participation throughout the country, and by enabling sport research. However, data from the past 16 years of sport participation demonstrate that participation is declining in many of our key sports, while others show inconsistent or merely ephemeral growth. Further, sport research is no longer pursued by the USOC, and it is not funded by any U.S. government agency or private American foundation. Consequently, the American sporting culture is eroding, and the United States is becoming a client nation when it comes to sport research. A review of the formation of The Amateur Sports Act shows that it was formulated to address Cold War concerns. Consequently, the Act failed to consider sport development, as the Act’s primary purpose was to engender a rationalized private sport system through which to build teams that could beat communist athletes. A reassessment of The Amateur Sports Act in light of contemporary conditions, suggests that greater attention to participation and research are necessary, but that such attention will require establishment of a foundation to nurture sport participation and to fund sport research. The foundation’s mandate would include creation of clubs and leagues to enable year round and lifelong sport participation, enhancement of the availability of sport facilities for club and league use, guidance for grassroots development of sport, and establishment of clear pathways for athletes. The template for such a foundation was created in the 1960s but never implemented. The time is ripe for it to be implemented now either by incorporating its mandates into the new Foundation for Fitness, Sport, and Nutrition, or by establishing a foundation that specifically targets sport development.

Open access

Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

The 2019 International Amateur Athletics Federation Track-and-Field World Championships will take place in Qatar in the Middle East. The 2020 Summer Olympics will take place in Tokyo, Japan. It is quite likely that these events may set the record for hottest competitions in the recorded history of both the Track-and-Field World Championships and Olympic Games. Given the extreme heat in which track-and-field athletes will need to train and compete for these games, the importance of hydration is amplified more than in previous years. The diverse nature of track-and-field events, training programs, and individuality of athletes taking part inevitably means that fluid needs will be highly variable. Track-and-field events can be classified as low, moderate, or high risk for dehydration based on typical training and competition scenarios, fluid availability, and anticipated sweat losses. This paper reviews the risks of dehydration and potential consequences to performance in track-and-field events. The authors also discuss strategies for mitigating the risk of dehydration.

Open access

Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper and Ian Ritchie

important role of IFs in the 1910s. During the 1914 Olympic Congress, IOC President Pierre de Coubertin hesitantly accepted that the IFs would be the main bodies to determine amateur rules for their respective sports. 2 The IOC subsequently shifted eligibility issues to the federations; however, questions

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Nicole Johnson, Katie Hanna, Julie Novak and Angelo P. Giardino

responsibility of writing the nation’s policies to safeguard athletes from bullying, harassment, hazing, physical, emotional, sexual abuse, and misconduct. The Center serves as a trusted resource for entities at all levels of sport from grassroots amateur sport organizations to professional leagues. The Center

Open access

Marcos de Noronha, Eleisha K. Lay, Madelyn R. Mcphee, George Mnatzaganian and Guilherme S. Nunes

quarter: 9 Fourth quarter: 29 Kofotolis et al 24 Amateur soccer 312 24.8 (4.6) 2 y 1171 matches 43 0–15 min: 2 16–30 min: 7 31–45 min: 11 46–60 min: 3 61–75 min: 4 76–90 min: 16 Carling et al 25 Soccer 14 (1 team) NR 6 seasons NR 7 0–15 min: 1 16–30 min: 2 31–45 min: 0 46–60 min: 2 61–75 min: 2 76–90 min

Open access

Matt Hausmann, Jacob Ober and Adam S. Lepley

any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication within the past 24 h Groups comparable at the start of the study 43 male (70%) and female amateur athletes (20–28 y) Subjects were randomized into treatment or control groups Subjects were eligible if they had suffered from their first ankle sprain within

Open access

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

generating maximum velocity and with limiting the loss of this as the sprint progresses. The sprints contested at the summer Olympic Games and International Amateur Athletics Federation sanctioned events include the 100-, 200-, and 400-m sprints, 4 × 100-, 4 × 400-m relay (male, female, and mixed gender

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Josep C. Benítez-Martínez, Pablo Martínez-Ramírez, Fermín Valera-Garrido, Jose Casaña-Granell and Francesc Medina-Mirapeix

the most important basketball leagues, according to the European national basketball league rankings. 25 Although studies on the patellar tendons of young elite or amateur basketball players are common, adult elite basketball players have received little attention. In summary, the present study shows

Open access

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

Ultramarathon running events and participation numbers have increased progressively over the past three decades ( Deutsche Ultramarathon Vereinigung, 2018 ). Anecdotally, there has been growing interest from both amateur and elite endurance runners looking for new adventurous courses and challenges

Open access

Germaine, M Artukovic, SO Shepherd, GL Close, JP Morton 9. Dietary Habits of Indian Sprint & Middle-Distance Athletes M Khopkar 10. Investigating the relationship between rapid weight loss patterns and nutritional knowledge in amateur boxers M Owen, F Brown, CD Thake Recent Nutritional Considerations of