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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

with surface anthropometry such as skinfolds ( 31 ). Specifically, a ratio of mass to stature 2 cannot reflect maturational changes in fat accumulation and patterning in girls. We suggest that classifying young people as overweight by using a direct measure of adiposity may better enable more valid

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

Distance events in Athletics include cross country, 10,000-m track race, half-marathon and marathon road races, and 20- and 50-km race walking events over different terrain and environmental conditions. Race times for elite performers span ∼26 min to >4 hr, with key factors for success being a high aerobic power, the ability to exercise at a large fraction of this power, and high running/walking economy. Nutrition-related contributors include body mass and anthropometry, capacity to use fuels, particularly carbohydrate (CHO) to produce adenosine triphosphate economically over the duration of the event, and maintenance of reasonable hydration status in the face of sweat losses induced by exercise intensity and the environment. Race nutrition strategies include CHO-rich eating in the hours per days prior to the event to store glycogen in amounts sufficient for event fuel needs, and in some cases, in-race consumption of CHO and fluid to offset event losses. Beneficial CHO intakes range from small amounts, including mouth rinsing, in the case of shorter events to high rates of intake (75–90 g/hr) in the longest races. A personalized and practiced race nutrition plan should balance the benefits of fluid and CHO consumed within practical opportunities, against the time, cost, and risk of gut discomfort. In hot environments, prerace hyperhydration or cooling strategies may provide a small but useful offset to the accrued thermal challenge and fluid deficit. Sports foods (drinks, gels, etc.) may assist in meeting training/race nutrition plans, with caffeine, and, perhaps nitrate being used as evidence-based performance supplements.

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Blanca Roman-Viñas, Fabio Zazo, Jesús Martínez-Martínez, Susana Aznar-Laín and Lluís Serra-Majem

Survey), 4 a periodic cross sectional study of the Catalan population (data from 2016), ANIVA study (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia-Valencian Anthropometry and Child Nutrition), 5 a cross-sectional study in the province of Valencia (data from 2013-2104 and 2014-2015) and one study

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

obtaining, verifying and interpreting data needed to identify nutrition-related problems, their causes and their significance” ( Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2015 ). A complete assessment should ideally include dietary evaluation, anthropometry and body composition analysis, biochemical testing

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Keith Baar

of the early success, the athlete maintained approximately this level of compliance in the off-season. Body Composition Assessment The player underwent body composition assessment via surface anthropometry using the sum of seven skinfolds at regular intervals throughout the program. Strength

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

-Cell total antioxidant control (Randox) and then analyzed at 340 nm by plate reader. Anthropometry and Body Composition Body composition was assessed between 9 and 10 AM after a 12-hour fast before and after the 6-day training program using an 8-polar tactile-electrode impedance meter (InBody 720; Biospace

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

values for peak V ˙ O 2 , may vary from those reported in the published data as, for our present purposes, we did not require complete study data sets, merely basic anthropometry and an initial peak V ˙ O 2 assessment. Table 1 Summary of Age Range, Mean Values for Peak Oxygen Uptake Expressed in

Open access

: 152.1 (32.06) watts/RQ, RA: 80 (36.1) watts/RQ; p<0.05). There was no significant group difference for handgrip (ET: 45.6 (7.59) kg, RA: 41.5 (4.2) kg; p=0.116). There were no significant correlations between age, protein intake, and weekly exercise volume with anthropometry, metabolic, strength and

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Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic and Laura Basterfield

measured using the following components of the Eurofit testing battery ( 13 ): 20mSRT performance, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Anthropometry Participants’ body mass, standing height, and sitting height were measured to the nearest 0.1 kg and 0.1 cm using

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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

the research design (e.g., parallel trial/cross-over, randomized, counterbalanced, blinding, observational) _______________  Sampling 6a List the eligibility (inclusion/exclusion) criteria and sampling method _______________ 6b Characterize the study sample (e.g., demographics, anthropometry