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Monica A.F. Lounsbery, Thomas L. McKenzie, Stewart Trost and Nicole J. Smith

Background:

Evidence-based physical education (EBPE) programs have increased physical activity (PA) by as much as 18%, yet widespread adoption has not occurred. Understanding school facilitators and barriers to PE should prove useful to EBPE dissemination efforts.

Methods:

Pairs of principals and PE teachers from 154 schools (75 Adopters and 79 Non-Adopters) from 34 states completed questionnaires. Differences between Adopter and Non-Adopter schools were tested using t tests or Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests and chi-square analyses.

Results:

Principals and teachers reported distinct PE curriculum adoption decision making roles, but few viewed themselves as very involved in program evaluation. Teachers in Adopter schools were more satisfied with PE program outcomes and had greater involvement in teacher evaluation and program decision making. Compared with teachers, principals were generally more satisfied with their school’s PE program outcomes and did not share the same perceptions of PE barriers. However, principals also demonstrated a general lack of PE program familiarity.

Conclusions:

To facilitate EBPE adoption, dissemination efforts should target both principals and PE teachers. Increasing principal’s knowledge may be instrumental in addressing some teacher perceptions of barriers to PE. Strategic advocacy efforts, including targeting policies that require PE program evaluation, are needed.

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Jonathan M. Casper, Jason N. Bocarro, Michael A. Kanters and Myron F. Floyd

Background:

Organized sport is viewed as a viable medium for promoting more physical activity among youth. However, participation in youth sport declines significantly among both boys and girls during their middle school years. This study examined middle school students’ perceived constraints to sport participation.

Methods:

Middle school students from 4 schools (6th−8th grade, N = 2465) completed a web based survey (97.3% response rate). Descriptive analysis, t tests, and ANOVA were used to assess extent of perceived constraints and differences among demographic and sport participation level subgroups.

Results:

The most salient constraint perceived by respondents was time, while knowledge was perceived as the lowest among the overall sample. Significant (P < .01) differences in perceived constraints were found among all comparisons groups. Girls, Latinos, lower SES students, and students who did not play sports reported more constraints than respective comparisons groups.

Discussion:

The sociodemographic characteristics of middle school students appear to be a significant factor in their perception of constraints to sport participation. Identifying constraints associated with sport participation can enable policy-makers and administrators to be more deliberate in channeling resources.

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming and Sarah E. Williams

theory (SCT; Bandura, 1997 ), which refers to the social and cognitive factors that determine human motivation, including but not limited to self-efficacy (belief in one’s ability to engage in a particular task and achieve an outcome), barriers (factors that prevent individuals from being active

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Tamara Vehige Calise, William DeJong, Timothy Heren, Chloe Wingerter and Harold W. Kohl III

high (4–5) levels of social support. (2) Perceived Barriers. Respondents reported how often each of 9 barriers (eg, not having time, feeling tired, and not having a safe place to exercise) kept them from participating in physical activity (1 = “never” and 5 = “very often”). The scores were combined to

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Mette Rørth, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Prue Cormie, John L. Oliffe and Julie Midtgaard

, Hornstrup, Christensen, Christensen, Jorgensen, Helge, et al., 2016 ; Uth, Hornstrup, Christensen, Christensen, Jorgensen, Schmidt, et al., 2016 ). Moreover, a qualitative evaluation component showed that football mitigated some of the population’s barriers to participation in rehabilitation by providing a

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

strategies to overcome possible barriers to home practice ( Chase, 2015 ). Action and coping plans are techniques used to facilitate behavior change ( National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014 ), in this study to facilitate participants’ practice of Tai Chi at home. The action plan is the

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

adjusting to cater for the specific population demographics, real life practical barriers, and specific race characteristics. Further research is warranted in this area, including the comprehensive and accurate assessment and analysis of the nutrition protocols of successful ultramarathon runners and

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Laura Miele, Carl W. Nissen, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Trudy Lerer and Garry Lapidus

Injury prevention programs have a positive effect on performance and the reduction of risk in most studies and reviews. However, not all teams and coaches utilize them. In order to better understand this, a 19-item survey was conducted to assess high school coaches’ perceptions, attitudes, and current practices regarding knee injury prevention among adolescent athletes during a mandatory Connecticut certification/re-certification course. The results of the survey show that high school coaches report a wide variability in their attitudes and utilization of training programs related to knee injury prevention. Coaches reported several barriers to employing the programs; the leading issue being time. Future education and outreach efforts should address the barriers in order to increase use of injury prevention training.

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Andy R. Dotterweich, Anna Swisher, Sterlynn Clendenin, Mauro Palmero, Amy E. Greene and Joseph T. Walker

The application of sport science is crucial to athlete performance development. However, the frequent disconnection among sport scientists, coaches, and athletes often leads to miscommunication and increased potential for performance barriers. The creation of sport performance enhancement groups (SPEGs) can help with the professional integration and communication among all personnel involved in the training process. However, SPEG formation faces a number of barriers in the current coaching landscape. The application of a benefits-based programming (BBP) model may aid in the formation of an SPEG and the dissemination of education for coaches, athletes, and administrators. A field experience involving the BBP model and SPEG creation in a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II school is presented with multiple model iterations

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Lindsey Cox, Victoria Berends, James F. Sallis, Jessica Marie St. John, Betsy McNeil, Martin Gonzalez and Peggy Agron

Background:

Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies.

Methods:

California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools.

Results:

Board members’ highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs.

Conclusions:

Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.