Dietary protein is widely regarded as a key nutrient for allowing optimal training adaptation ( Tipton, 2008 ) and optimizing body composition ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ; Murphy et al., 2015 ) in athletes including track and field athletes. Track and field athletics encompasses a broad spectrum of
Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips
Felipe Fossati Reichert, Jonathan Charles Kingdom Wells, Ulf Ekelund, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Cesar Gomes Victora and Pedro C. Hallal
Physical activity may influence both fat and lean body mass. This study investigated the association between physical activity in children between the ages of 11 and 13 years and both fat and lean mass.
A subsample of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort was visited in 2004–2005 and 2006–2007. Physical activity was estimated through standardized questionnaires. Body composition (ie, fat and lean mass) was measured using deuterium dilution. Those with moderate-to-vigorous activity greater than 420 min/wk were classified as active, and physical activity trajectory was defined as being above or below the cutoff at each visit.
Four hundred eighty-eight adolescents (51.8% boys) were evaluated. The mean difference in fat mass in boys and girls who reported ≥ 420 min/wk of physical activity in both visits compared with those who were consistently inactive was –4.8 kg (P ≤ .001). There was an inverse association between physical activity and fat mass among boys in both crude and confounder-adjusted analyses, whereas for girls, the association was evident only in the crude analysis. There was no significant association between physical activity and lean mass.
Physical activity may contribute to tackling the growing epidemic of adolescent obesity in low- and middle-income countries.
Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips
undergoing varied training protocols and caloric restriction interventions. To date, there are only a handful of studies investigating the effect of protein quantity on MPS and body composition during dietary energy restriction in physically active adults. Following 5 days of dietary energy restriction in
Lucy-Joy M. Wachira, Stella K. Muthuri, Mark S. Tremblay and Vincent O. Onywera
The report card presents available evidence on the physical activity (PA) and body weight status of Kenyan children and youth. It highlights areas where Kenya is succeeding and those in which more action is needed.
Comprehensive review and analysis of available data on core indicators for Kenyan children and youth 5−17 years were conducted. The grading system used was based on a set of specific criteria and existing grading schemes from similar report cards in other countries.
Of the 10 core indicators discussed, body composition was favorable (grade B) while overall PA levels, organized sport participation, and active play were assigned grades of C. Active transportation and sedentary behaviors were also favorable (grade B). Family/peers, school, governmental and nongovernmental strategies were graded C.
The majority of Kenyan children and youth have healthy body composition levels and acceptable sedentary time, but are not doing as well in attaining the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation on PA. Although Kenya seems to be doing well in most indicators compared with some developed countries, there is a need for action to address existing trends toward unhealthy lifestyles. More robust and representative data for all indicators are required.
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke
obtaining, verifying and interpreting data needed to identify nutrition-related problems, their causes and their significance” ( Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2015 ). A complete assessment should ideally include dietary evaluation, anthropometry and body composition analysis, biochemical testing
Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron
, and mortality. Evidence suggests that sleep is also associated with body composition, with both short and long sleep duration associated with greater likelihood of obesity. 4 Most of the research targeting these health behaviors focuses on the average engagement in behaviors over time. Although
Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer
most attention within the fasting literature. This form of fasting theoretically offers metabolic and body composition benefits for athletes ( Morton et al., 2018 ). It involves 16–20 hr of fasting with a 4- to 8-hr feeding window. Several commercial variations of this diet have been developed. To date
Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy
athletes may occur intentionally in order to optimize body mass or body composition for competition, to avoid weight gain during injury and illness or due to eating disorders (EDs) or DE behavior. Several potential reasons may explain inadvertent LEA such as large energy needs and suppressed appetite
Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen and Tuija H. Tammelin
maximal 20-m shuttle run test following the Eurofit protocol 22 with slight modifications to number of laps per stage. The number of 20-m trials that the children were able to keep up with an accelerating pace was used to indicate the level of aerobic fitness in the analyses. Body composition, especially
Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Betty Méndez-Perez, Vanessa Castro Morales, Joana Martín-Rojo, Bianca Tristan, Amilid Torín Bandy, Maritza Landaeta-Jiménez, Coromoto Macías-Tomei and Mercedes López-Blanco
The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available.
Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents.
Some indicators report incomplete information or a lack of data. Overweight and Obesity were classified as A; Body Composition and Nongovernmental Organization Policies as B; Municipal Level Policies as C; and Overall Physical Activity Levels and National Level Policies as D.
63% of children and youth have low physical activity levels. Venezuela needs to undergo a process of articulation between the several existing initiatives, and for said purposes, political will and a methodological effort is required. Investments, infrastructure, and opportunities will be more equal for all children and youth if more cooperation between institutions is developed and communication strategies are applied.