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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

single best indicator of youth aerobic fitness, but its interpretation in relation to sex, age, body mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and maturity status is controversial ( 4 ). The vast majority of published data are cross-sectional and, on balance, show that boys’ absolute peak V ˙ O 2 (ie, in L·min −1

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

. Robinson compared the ratio-scaled data of the men in his study with his own unpublished data and with values he calculated from individual values of V ˙ O 2 max (in L·min −1 ) and body mass (in kg) published in classical papers which had themselves not ratio-scaled their data ( 16 , 17 , 29 ). In the

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Samantha L. Winter, Sarah M. Forrest, Joanne Wallace and John H. Challis

(DXA) have been used to estimate BSIPs. 4 , 5 DXA has also been shown to reliably predict subject whole-body mass, 6 and segmentation of the scan can be customized in order to determine the mass of individual body segments. However, DXA does have some drawbacks, including its cost, general

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Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

. Hyperthermic females cooled 83% faster than hyperthermic males. Abbreviations: BSA/LBM, body surface area-to-lean body mass ratio; BSA/M, body surface area-to-mass ratio; CWI, cold-water immersion; EHS, exertional heat stroke; ht, height; IWI, ice water immersion; LBM, lean body mass; T rec , rectal

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

these events. The need to jump as high or as far as possible also demands that athletes maintain an optimal body mass (BM) and body composition that maximize their power–weight (power-to-weight) ratio. Throwing events, which include shot put (SP), discus throw, javelin throw (JT), and hammer throw (HT

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

weight stable and not excessively low in body mass or body fat levels yet have impaired physiological function secondary to LEA ( Burke et al., 2018c ; Loucks, 2014 ). Table 1 Classification of Energy Availability Levels With Examples of Calculation for a Hypothetical Male and Female Athlete Energy

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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

significantly lower body fat at age 5. Less active preschoolers tend to have a higher body mass index (BMI) than their more active peers 12 , 13 ; conversely, greater participation in physical activity is associated with a healthier body weight. 7 , 13 Preschoolers with a higher BMI also tend to be less

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

effectiveness of integrating exercise in treatment. Exercise has been shown to reinforce weight gain and increase body mass index (BMI) in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and supervised aerobic and strength training exercises have been shown to effectively reduce eating disorder symptoms ( Calogero

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

least 12 months and without a history of recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms volunteered to participate in the study (age, 26.7 ± 5.2 years; body mass, 69.6 ± 8.4 kg; height, 1.82 ± 0.09 m; body mass index, 21.2 ± 1.5 kg/m 2 ; VO 2 peak, 63.9 ± 2.5 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ; W max,  389.3 ± 50.4 W; hours

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David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl and Reed W. Hoyt

prescribed in Army Regulation 70–25. All research was conducted under the oversight of Institutional Review Boards. Model Development The updated model development dataset included data from 25 volunteers (age, 23 ± 3 yrs; height, 1.72 ± 0.07 m; body mass, 68.5 ± 8.1 kg). The sample included three women (age