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Petter Fagerberg

et al., 1988 ; Hagmar et al., 2013 ; Hetland et al., 1993 ; MacConnie et al., 1986 ; Olmedillas et al., 2011 ; Smathers et al., 2009 ; Wheeler et al., 1984 ), potentially due to long-term LEA ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 , 2015 ). Bodybuilding is a sport in which athletes compete to show extreme

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Elena López-Cañada, José Devís-Devís, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Sofía Pereira-García, Jorge Fuentes-Miguel and Víctor Pérez-Samaniego

, walking, and bodybuilding, whereas the bottom 3 were dancing, basketball, and volleyball. The top most practiced activities were individual, and the least practiced were 2 teams and 1 individual activity. Figure 1 —Participation in top 12 particular PAS by gender identity before and after GD. GD indicates

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Margo L. Mountjoy, Louise M. Burke, Trent Stellingwerff and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: A review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism . 1 – 18 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0332 Heikura , I. , Uusitalo , A. , Stellingwerff , T. , Bergland , D. , Mero , A. , & Burke , L. ( 2018 ). Low energy

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Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

supplements (HDS). Of the sample, 45 had injury caused by bodybuilding HDS, 85 by non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 by medications. Liver injury caused by HDS increased from 7% to 20% during the study period. More recently, nationally-representative surveillance data from 63 emergency departments were obtained by

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Theodore Kent Kessinger, Bridget Melton, Theresa Miyashita and Greg Ryan

of nutritional supplements affecting muscular performance 12 wk or longer prior to the start of the study. Intervention Investigated RT groups performed 9 exercises targeting major muscle groups with equated volume. Exercises chosen were based on common inclusion in bodybuilding and strength-type RT

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

. Glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which are often marketed to support bodybuilding and postexercise recovery, also have an unclear role in supporting immune function in athletes ( Bermon et al., 2017 ). Clearly, immunonutrition is an emerging and important area for consideration in the use of

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Joshua I. Newman

submission titled “‘Pretty Good for a Girl’: Feminist Physicality and Women’s Bodybuilding” is not featured in the pages of this journal. In their assessment, the reviewers and editor of our association’s journal found that the submission lacked both substantive theorization and empirical rigor. There we

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

• 30 bodybuilding clubs • 19–28 years Self-administered supplements questionnaire/checklist; current use Overall: 49 (87 M vs. 11 F) (M vs. F) Health (31% vs. 59%); immune (27% vs. 53%); performance (41% vs. 9%) Hormones: 17 vs. 0 Creatine: 61 vs. 0 Vitamins: 52 vs. 4 Mineral: 15 vs. 10 Baylis et

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23 ( 3 ), 210 – 219 . PubMed doi:10.1123/ijsnem.23.3.210 10.1123/ijsnem.23.3.210 Fagerberg , P. ( 2017 ). Negative consequences of low energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: A review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

. ( 2017 ). Negative consequences of low energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: A review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1 – 31 . PubMed ID: 28530498 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0332 Gibbs , J.C. , Nattiv , A. , Barrack , M.T. , Williams , N.I. , Rauh